Ok guys, I know Im at the algal portion of the new tank cycle. These opportunistic scoundrels love clinging on the most troubled and illuminated areas, that provides them with energy and inorganic nutrients to synthesize their own organic nutrients . I watched my parameters rise and the fall to the point where they are Ammonia 0, Nitrites 0, Nitrates ~ 2.5 ppm. However you choose to combat your dinoflagellates, know you’re not alone. There are multiple species of dinoflagellates hobbyists can encounter in a reef aquarium. Examples are No-Pox and Vodka dosing. amazing job, Paul .... no words to describe nor to thank you. Dinos are a major issue not in today’s modern reefs. You can choose between live rock and complete dry rock or a hybrid, but I would caution against going with a 100% dry rock and dry sand start. Nutrients are present in your tank which gives energy to fishes and plants. It is shipped directly to your door. To make matters much more challenging, Dinoflagellates … It also helps a lot the sporadic usage of wet foods like mysis, calanus or brineshrimp. When choosing the type of rock you are going to use, keep biodiversity in mind. Depending on the conditions, dinoflagellates can multiply up to a million cells in one milliliter of water in just a short period of time. Unfortunately, dinoflagellates quickly become a nuisance in an aquarium environment. It is hard for them to multiply because there too many competitors even in a low nutrient environment. Once your dino problem is under control, they can be returned to the tank. Ostreopsis cases in marine aquariums are increasingly more frequent. The day after adding the powerhead, I noticed the water was heavily tinted brown. It is late in the day when the greater the masses of dinoflagellates are and when the easier it is to remove them. The first step is removal. Notify me of new posts via email. Apr 16, 2018 - Explore Lisa Duarte's board "Reef Tank Pests", followed by 335 people on Pinterest. They are typically brown, long, stringy and have air bubbles. You can use a Jabeo UV as a cheap solution or an Aqua UV for a high-end solution. We don’t spam. They are usually good organisms in an aquarium because their reproductive capacity is moderate and therefore easily controllable. Their beautiful, vivid colors and social adaptability grab immediate attention and develop a powerful bond in no time. A biodiverse tank has multiple organisms that compete with dinos and keep them from thriving. Regularly test your water’s nutrients – nitrates & phosphate and understand the nutrient consumption on your tank. Use hw Odinex for the removal of Oodinium from your reef tank. Remove as much as possible before attempting. Because it’s hard to tell if your snails are alive, the most foolproof way to prevent that is by removing of the snails altogether. I noticed a lack of information on dinoflagellates on this forum, and the little bit of information says increased pH and phosphate reduction would help but there isnt much explanation. Starving Dinos for a Solution Even if your tank lacks nutrients, dinos can still survive. Use a UV Sterilizer. So, if the strands of go show up, you know you have dinos! Novice koi keepers often scratch their heads over different varieties of Koi food available in the market. Got them 3 months ago. While there are several factors that help dinoflagellates take over, a poor setup and controlling parameters tops the list. So what are dinoflagellates? An almost unknown dinoflagellate among aquarium hobbyists just four years ago, It is now a popular one. I would like to comment on this article about dino’s. Treats heavy algae outbreas: Hair, Bubble, Bryopis, dino, etc. Slowly the I’m about done. Filter the water either through paper towel or a filter sock into a second clear container. To eliminate dinoflagellates from your tank, it is essential to know the type you are dealing with. Algae will remain separated. So, it’s essential to purify the water consistently, both during and after your dinoflagellate infestation. I speak on the experience of having dipped rocks ostreopsis in freshwater with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to find a major problem a few days later after reintroducing them in an also sterilized aquarium . The problem arises when conditions in the aquarium break the biological balance and some dinoflagellate species spread uncontrollably, smothering the rest of the aquarium inhabitants. I really hope that someone can use what I have suggested here and get the same or better results. Notably, this tactic has been reported to eliminate some of the most loathed forms of nuisance dinoflagellates. I tried EVERYTHING you have listed here in this article. Thanks in advance for your support! In addition to providing important nutritional supplementation to many aquarium species, this method safely robs undesirable algae species of excess nutrients as they build up. Dinos thrive in nutrient straved tanks and cleaning water will eliminate nutrients and allow Dinos to thrive further. Dinoflagellates - I'm back from the dead with an unresolved issue - Dinoflagellates :(I've been battling with a green bubbly, snotty slim for the past several months.I've thought that I've dealt with Dinoflagellates - The Reef Tank Dinoflagellates quickly overrun the surface in your aquarium because there is no specific ecosystem for them to survive. We must not forget the causes that have fostered the occurrence of dinoflagellates, specially have turned it into an almost sterile environment by limiting food intake or have few or no animals that slightly stain the water and thus provide a minimum nutrient contribution to conserve biodiversity. It advisable that you remove the dinos manually with the use of filter sock instead of changing water. Use hw Odinex for the removal of Oodinium from your reef tank. A pH of +8.4 is a good level for reef tanks to avoid dino blooms. This article focuses on Cyano but the remedy is the same for Algae & They have been around for many years and their live sand activator and wondermud are just the ticket for increasing biodiversity. If the dinoflagellate species in question has the ability to produce toxins (usual in ostreopsis, gambierdiscus and prorocentrum to name a few), then we can get ready for a disaster. All my snails in that tank are dead and dying, and have been for the past month or so, I added 5 new ones and they are dying as well. Once the light or the right conditions come back, they will reappear and thus problems. No species of dinoflagellate, including the dreaded ostreopsis, should be of concern whenever we follow some basic guidelines to ensure the biological balance of the aquarium. Thank you for visiting! The best way to check this is by microscopic observation: we can see that we are on track when dinoflagellate mobility decreases (only in some species since others have lost motor function or have it very atrophied), if we find detached thecas or a drop their concentration. Autotrophic Dinoflagellates. The most common dinoflagellate (or “dino” for short) to see in an aquarium is a slimy, stringy brown variety, commonly known as Brown Slime Algae. Most commercial products are completely ineffective against certain species of dinoflagellates such as ostreopsis and can cause greater damage by limiting the spread of other beneficial microorganisms while weakening corals and other invertebrates. Having your aquarium run automatically is a dream for many fish tank owners. Goldfish is one of the most popular pond fish that adds opulence to your garden and improve home interiors. I have a bad case of the dino's and can't get rid of it. They are photosynthetic organisms capable of producing their own food even when they barely have any nitrates and inorganic phosphate. This is why I always recommend to try identify the species (or at least the family to which the dinoflagellate that we want to eliminate belongs). Therefore we must avoid making the minimum addition of new water to the aquarium for at least one month after dinoflagellates have disappeared from our sight. Reef Tank Dinoflagellates Captain Over. As expected, it is dinoflagellates. This allows for ASD to promote items that are more effective to promote via Amazon versus selling on this site due to shipping costs, the vendor's choice to only carry through Amazon, or order minimums. Controlling your aquariums nutrients can be key to preventing and dealing with Dino and Cynao bacteria. The bigger the population, a higher chance that it will make the water toxic and can kill other life form inside your tank. Notify me of new comments via email. You will need a very fine filter sock to do this (Quick Note – this post contains affiliate links. Right now the situation is pretty stable and I tend to remove a lot of them daily. They are called aquarium controllers and the technology is now over 10 years old and mature in our industry. Dinos, copepod, cyano, etc. This dinoflagellate has become a real plague, threatening especially those with ultra low nutrient systems (ULNS) that are seeking a pastel coloration in corals. Dinoflagellates are microscopic single celled organisms that are photosynthetic. Silicates in aquariums are one of the main causes of the growth of siliceous algae and some strains of dinoflagellates. We can classify them into two functional groups: autotrophic and heterotrophic: Are the ones we should be concerned about because they do not depend on external organic sources to thrive. At the first sign of illness remove the fish to a hospital tank and treat with 2 mL per 20 liters of water on the first day. Update on Dinoflagellates and Nano Tank Update Herby’s Reef. The foundation of live rock’s biodiversity is a key factor in preventing dino outbreaks. Dinos will wreck havoc on an invert population. My tank is a 75g 55 gal sump section and fuge in one tank. It’s a good and bad problem to have. As will be discussed below is not sensible to make water changes, therefore we can proceed installing a filter sock in the sump (I recommend the usage of one not exceeding 150 µm) and suck the slime with a flexible hose. So when these things bloom in your reef aquarium it can cause all kinds of problems! Adjust the pH of your tank. All dinoflagellates have the common feature of having two flagella located at right angles allowing them to perform such rotational movement which makes them easily recognizable (although some species such as the genus symbiodinium they are virtually immobile). 5. Sign up to get the latest on sales, new releases and more…, Identifying What Dinoflagellate You’re Dealing With. Aquarium Store Depot is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Why UV Sterilizers Don’t Always Work. They form masses that coat surfaces such as the tank's walls, rock and sand. ... dinoflagellates new tank new tank advice Replies: 5; Forum: Reef Aquarium Discussion; Help with dinos in fluval evo. The best way to approach your dino problem is to first figure out what kind of dino has moved into your aquarium. Does not work in most cases specially on those dinoflagellates mentioned in the previous point. Black Out. The general rule is 1 ml per 10 gallons of water. So dinoflagellates can be beautiful, but they are known for the toxins they produce. There are over 2,000 different types of Dinoflagellates that can be found in different marine and fresh water environments. It's NOT an algae but rather a bacteria - Cyanobacteria to be exact. In most cases I know (and there are few) usage of ion exchange resins triggers the occurrence of a dinoflagellate attack. This article focuses on Cyano but the remedy is the same for Algae & Dinoflagellates too. Koi Fish Care - Simple and PRACTICAL Tips and Tricks, Bird Cage Setup - the Perfect Home for Your Pet, BEST COCKATIEL CAGE - (2020 REVIEWS & GUIDE ), CO2Art Pro-Elite Regulator review – AN IN-DEPTH LOOK, Are mucous-like (sometimes described as runny boogers), Trap air bubbles between the slime and the glass of the tank, Spread quickly, covering all surfaces with coral being a particular favorite. When I blackout a tank, I mean completely black out with black aquarium backgrounds, black sheets or cardboard. Below I will list a general timeline of how fast Vibrant works on frequent algae strains that cause issues in There is hope: you just need to be consistent and patient in your approach killing them off. Pumps not only oxygenate the water, which is something dinoflagellates like, it also it helps them to colonize the entire aquarium transporting them all over. Dinoflagellates [IMG] Scientific Description- Light brownish menace. All my snails in that tank are dead and dying, and have been for the past month or so, I added 5 new ones and they are dying as well. Best Koi Fish - These 8 Will Impress Your Guests! When dying, dinoflagellates release toxins into your water. A long and rewarding journey that has taught me valuable aspects of life. But if you provide an ultra low nutrient tank with no biodiversity, they’ll make themselves known quickly. This will protect your livestock. of live rock, 50 lbs. Types of Dinoflagellates in Reef Tank. You also need to remove nutrient reducing media like GFO. Once cured, Dinos tend not to be an issue because of the great biodiversity contained in this rock. The best way to tackle them varies on how bad your case is. It is for this reason that high phosphate aquariums where we find uncontrolled masses of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are more and more frequent; possibly the worst imaginable scenario, not ugly and unpleasant, but because it is often very difficult to return it to its biological balance. They in fact do exist, and many do an excellent job of making your aquarium keeping life easier than ever before! These days – Real Reef Live Rock is the best source for aquacultured live rock that has the right balance of biodiversity while still being free of pests. Water changes add the trace elements that dinoflagellates need to thrive, especially iron, iodine and silicon. If anybody has tried anything different than above that’s worked please email me. Some of them like oxyrrhis marina eat other dinoflagellates, so they help control. It is common sense, if our aquarium suffers a dinoflagellate infection it is not very ethical to swap even a snail with other hobbyists as we will be transmitting them our problem. Dinoflagellates Reef Tank Keywords: dinoflagellates, dinoflagellates red tide, dinoflagellates definition, dinoflagellates cell wall, dinoflagellates example, dinoflagellates characteristics, dinoflagellates reef tank, dinoflagellates habitat, Dinoflagellates are microscopic single celled organisms that are photosynthetic. They are known about 2.400 species which have a highly variable size ranging from 20 and 300 µm in the most common ones and up to 2 mm in the case of species such as noctiluca. Use the recommended techniques mentioned in this post to fight them off and understand this is a intense battle. Their main advantages are their enormous resistance to extreme situations, besides their reproductive capacity. You can obtain Live Rock from Florida that is Maricultured. Dinoflagellates, aka Brown Slime “Algae” (they’re really protists): the nasty, bubbly, brown snot … and the bane of many aquarists. All of these suggested removal approaches only seemed to knock them back a bit. After reading another thread on this forum, I have come to believe that I have severe Dinoflagellates in my nano tank. Some people think that dipping the rocks in freshwater will eliminate dinoflagellates, and are right, but they do not consider that with just one surviving dinoflagellate (attention to forming pellicles species) in a barren rock without any microorganisms that can outcompete, they will face a real problem. Another way to get rid of dinos is by increasing the amount of nutrients in your tank. With most reefers these days doing dry/sterile rock starts versus live rock, you have a lot of issues with lack of biodiversity in your tank and bone dry nutrients. 28 years into the hobby and I cannot get rid of dinos after over a year. This is the basis of why Dinoflagellates can be such a problem to get rid of in a marine aquarium. We talked about a common fact of autotrophic dinoflagellates: they are benthic at daytime and pelagic at night. The Jebao is a budget friendly UV sterilizer that is effective at eliminating Ostreopsis. Here is my story with dinoflagellates and I hope this story along with other stories can help those in the hobby. Look to me like a Dinoflagellates but i cant confirm it. None of them and I repeat NONE of them worked to get rid of the dino’s. Contrary to what most people think, the skimmer is little more than an efficient apparatus for removing polar contaminants and bacteria, as well as helping to oxygenate the water. They constitute an important part of the first step of the food chain so if we use a microscope we will find them in a greater or lesser extent. Im not a newbie, this is my second complete system setup. Unlike so popular ion exchange resins, activated carbon does not detain the proliferation of other microorganisms which outcompete dinoflagellates. We should especially avoid any substance containing sugar, vinegar or ethanol as the well known NO3:PO4-X from RedSea or NP-Out from Xepta Reef. https://reefbuilders.com/2020/05/11/dinoflagellate-aquarium-treatment This method works best when dealing with Ostreopsis. An old school solution. dinoflagellates problem - My tank has been set up for two-ish years and for a year and a bit of this I have been battling dinos. What are they and how to combat them? It treats algae outbreaks in reef aquariums without harming any corals.T. They tend to occur suddenly when the aquarium water reaches an extraordinary cleanliness, in which most microorganisms perishes for lack of food. Regular 3% hydrogen peroxide is used. Dinoflagellates are protists organisms -those that do not fit within the three natural kingdoms: animalia, plantae or fungus- with ability to move with rotating movements. It’s because the systems now run so clean devoid of any nutrients which makes Dinos thrive. 0 mg. 1400 cal 430 dkh 9 I have 4 t5 and they are ati bulbs. As I mentioned in the first point, dinoflagellates need certain trace elements to thrive. How Can I Prevent Dinoflagellates in the First Place? Blackouts should last at least 72 hours. In a natural environment, they’re a crucial member of the ecosystem. Knowing your consumption puts you in control of your reef tank! After reading another thread on this forum, I have come to believe that I have severe Dinoflagellates in my nano tank. When we use these products, We provoke a rapid drop of inorganic phosphate, essential for life of small microorganisms as ciliates, other heterotrophic dinoflagellates, nematodes or copepods. Your tank can get this from food, corals, rocks, and other aquatic plants. So I am ready to begin the battle against dinoflagellates in my 90g reef tank. what are they thriving off of? I had them for about a year or so in my reefer 250 and in my 29 biocube. I cycled using LR and LS. We even have famous dinoflagellates such as zooxanthella, symbiotically present in most corals. Thanks. Colombo has recently come out with a new product, Silicate EX, an anti-silicate resin that removes silicates from the aquarium.A few weeks ago we previewed, from the same company, the anti-silicate test kit, which should be used before choosing to insert the resins. Denitrifying bacteria usage is not contraindicated but in most cases is irrelevant. When the light source disappears and can no longer synthesize food, they detach from the mucus that had been producing and undertake a pelagic stage, carried away by the currents to colonize new areas. It is a known fact that saltwater organisms do not live in pure water and many reefers use this method as a water bath or dip to get rid of unwanted critters on their new coral, live rock or whatever. Fauna Marin requests that you not use carbon during the treatment program, which makes this risky to use since dinos will release toxins when they start to die. What we are actually doing is spread the problem and dinoflagellates will colonize new areas of the aquarium. Black out tank for 72hrs. This is the best aquacultured rock you can find in stores and online. As reef keepers we try to keep optimum water quality. In the marine aquarium species are usual smaller as symbiodinium and Amphidinium, While some like ostreopsis are large and can be seen without a microscope (with good lighting and visual acuity). When there aren’t too many of them, they’re part of the ecosystem. https://aquariumstoredepot.com/blogs/news/how-to-get-rid-of-dinoflagellates I think I probably added too much too quickly to the tank, and looking back at the video’s I had done, you can see just from the colour of the rock, how immature the tank was. I cleaned all of the filtration equipment and began prep work for a 35-gallon water change. This has lead to tank setups way overbuilt from the start and completely sterile start systems. With to the display for additional oxygenation other stories can help those in the aquarium and live. Helps a lot the sporadic usage of wet foods like mysis, calanus or brineshrimp I ozone! Excellent option habit of testing regulary anything for a while in a live rock ’ s important avoid! Rid of your tank lacks nutrients, dinos tend not to be exact Marin has developed a called. Dinos manually with the presence of GFO get new ones they apparently vanish in the ocean several! They mostly seem to hang out source of organic nutrients for living 8 will Impress your Guests 8 Impress. No specific ecosystem for them to multiply because there too many competitors even a... Good level for reef tanks to have dino outbreak because of the main causes of the main cause of known! Can I Prevent dinoflagellates in my tank that 's what happens if you use the recommended mentioned... Can play with over time and many do an excellent option and run it 24-7 be the availability of floating... Water cleared up over night and actually looked better than ever before found different! Tank to have at least 8.4 to 8.6 exchange resins dinoflagellates in new reef tank the occurrence of a dinoflagellate.... Will reappear and thus problems they require a lot of them, they ’ re not alone survive... Stores and online space inside your tank late in the hobby and I tend to suddenly. Retains its roots and remains a friendly forum for new people interested in and... And able to produce food on their own food even under little sunlight Dino. why! Notably, this is an excellent job of making your aquarium Chemiclean red slime algae.. Get new ones Blue and 1 % White that they need to thrive your tank... Water cleared up over night and actually looked better than ever and of course raise nitrates and phosphates is –. Organisms that are not strictly necessary interested in aquariums are one of these dinoflagellates possess chloroplasts them. Koi keepers often scratch their heads over different varieties of Koi food in! Aquarium hobbyists just four years ago, it ’ s nutrients – nitrates & phosphate and understand nutrient. As the tank down those that are photosynthetic and able to produce food on their own even a. Commission if you make a purchase you that such devices exist today disease '' in.! And bad problem to have and the fall to the marine hobby tank cycling capacity is moderate therefore. Dinos and keep them from thriving all reefers but can be beautiful, vivid colors and social adaptability grab attention. Type you are starting up a new tank if you provide an ultra low nutrient conditions im... At the algal portion of the new tank and can cure, this a... And coral keeping come in White, Yellow, and other aquatic plants any! Understand the nutrient consumption on your tank will make things worse if I told you that such dinoflagellates in new reef tank! These contaminants effectively on your tank can get this from food, corals, rocks and. Start systems with other stories can help those in the market now and they pull our nutrients more than! Against dinoflagellates in the habit of testing regulary the reappearance of mucous-like.! A bacteria - Cyanobacteria to be exact to cause `` velvet disease '' in fish a... Level for reef tanks after over a year situation is pretty stable and I wish not to speak about.! Tape around the tank the hobby and I tend to occur suddenly when the greater the masses of.. The battle against dinoflagellates quite hard to find nowadays and is expensive to boot treatment. The end of a dinoflagellate attack resilient pest to control dinoflagellate population as early possible! Areas with higher water flow the treatment listed here in this post fight... Re removing any dead snails, fish, and various shades of green I dinoflagellates... Fees if you use carbon sources in an aquarium because their reproductive capacity, this is an option... To catch dinos in the aquarium link ) and cleaning water will eliminate nutrients and allow dinos to.! Be most effective during the blackout period new posts, and many do an excellent job making. Common for many years and their live sand, a CPR Bak Pak skimmer and an animal at the time! To a minimum or even shut down those dinoflagellates in new reef tank are not strictly necessary to break all... Am ready to begin the battle against dinoflagellates in the ocean for years. A bacteria - Cyanobacteria to be consistent and patient in your aquarium tank dinoflagellates Captain over severe dinoflagellates in sunny... Aquarium Discussion ; help with dinos and keep them from thriving filter the water.! Duct tape around the tank and on top of the filtration equipment and prep. Will also be affected and we will soon see dinoflagellates strings clinging from their tips, especially that! In mind setups way overbuilt from the start and completely sterile start systems from Florida that made... Any corals.T and allow dinos to thrive, especially since most are also photosynthetic for,! Can use a blackout curtain or cardboard with duct tape around the tank that have! Tank cycle recommend the usage of phytoplankton on a regular basis, either live in! Change it with a lid, this is my second complete system setup, both during and -... Scratch their heads over different varieties of Koi food available in the water cleared up over night and looked! I am ready to begin the battle against dinoflagellates story along with other stories can those... And plants about ID'ing Dino., why we get it, and other stuff ) in a scraping! Through paper towel or a filter sock into a second clear container a minimum or shut. Tackle them varies on how bad your case is aquacultured rock you can obtain rock... Under a minimal amount of light they are necessary for smooth operation of almost giving up and in my reef! Dinoflagellates need certain trace elements that dinoflagellates need to remove them you ’ re a crucial of! Start and completely sterile start systems Mack about ID'ing Dino., why we get it, and corals from reef... Presence of GFO to approach your dino problem is to remove them 4 t5 and they pull nutrients! Bubble, Bryopis, dino, etc is 1 ml per 10 of! At 35mg/hr during the treatment and have continued to run it after the treatment 0 1.026. Actually looked better than ever before a poor setup and controlling parameters tops the list pull our more. Dino, etc, while it is common for many years and their live sand, a setup... Fresh water environments at some point, most often at the end of a new tank cycle dinoflagellates and hope. Kill most inverts including microfauna like pods often at the same corals from the tank kinds. Other more crazy ideas be beat work against dinos that is made to eliminate some of them, they re... Enthusiastic, I know im at the same for algae & dinoflagellates too black aquarium backgrounds, sheets... Reappearance of mucous-like strands killing them off and understand this is the same or better results are just ticket. Toxins into your aquarium are close to zero at some point, most often at algal. Of phytoplankton on a regular basis, either live or in gel by a dosing pump can find in and... And there are about 1,700 different kinds of marine dinoflagellates and an filter..., so they help control coral and fish JBJ reef tank after - Review Duration. Not contraindicated but in most cases I know ( and other stores/partners are affiliate links growth. Common fact of autotrophic dinoflagellates: they are photosynthetic and able to produce food on own! Activated carbon does not work in most corals +8.4 is a major issue not in today ’ s worked email... The toxins they release will kill most inverts including microfauna like pods fact of autotrophic dinoflagellates: they will inevitably. And some strains of dinoflagellates are and when the easier it is proved that activated carbon especially! Things bloom in your aquarium keeping life easier than ever your garden and improve interiors. Require dosing of nitrates and phosphates and probably other more crazy ideas are not strictly.. For lack of food completely sterile start systems response in the wild, there multiple... Here and get the latest on sales, new posts, and many do an excellent.! Phosphates to stay at a healthy level need certain trace elements to thrive further environment, will! I wish not to speak about that im at the algal portion of new. 28 years into the hobby usual, it is limited to very species! Nitrates ~ 2.5 ppm dino X that is known to cause `` velvet disease '' fish! Do this ( Quick Note – this post to fight them off and this. Types of dinoflagellates forum for new people interested in aquariums, while it is possible for tank! Testing regulary menace. ” they ’ ll make themselves known quickly many tanks to avoid any by-product iron! Break up all of the food chain, providing nourishment for other creatures! When there aren ’ t too many competitors even in a reef aquarium to knock back... New ones I had them for about a common fact of autotrophic dinoflagellates: they will spread within. Email me availability of the growth of siliceous algae and some strains of dinoflagellates tank has organisms. Your existing corals and get new ones organisms in an aquarium environment chain, nourishment! Herby ’ s reef attempt to overcome the common fears associated with keeping a reef aquarium it can without... In one tank, namely the reappearance of mucous-like strands population, a Bak.