He is affiliated with the Brussels based organisation Corporate Europe Observatory, chair of the Finnish Refugee Council and co-chair of Alternative to the EU – Finland. Los ejemplos de Panamá y Bolivia. The paper then identifies the challenges to regional integration in West Africa by looking at some institutions of ECOWAS. The dark side of this idea was that EU integration has worked top-down. Deepening economic interdependence between nations and regions, the increasing importance of a globalised capital market and the increasing size and power of transnational corporations have overburdened the steering and regulating capacity of nation states. 0000004645 00000 n This is not only a concern at the international level where bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements are known to undermine human rights. Hence, as long as power structure are not altered, we should not expect too much good to come out from institutions working on global regulation of e.g. Free movement of capital, labour and services have been seen as equally natural parts of economic integration on liberal premises. + The fourth is the mere fact that Latin Ametican efforts towards regional integration can learn from the European experience, positively and negatively. Let me mention some of these challenges to contemporary regionalism in Latin America and other parts of the South. 2. For this, effective, almost excessive formal veto powers by smaller members states in the regional organisations are needed to counter the effective and lasting, greater political weight of larger members. In consequence, the more the economic instruments have developed the more they have dominated over other policy areas in which decision-making has been more confined to the national level. A. Nuclear proliferation, the totalisation of war through the war on terror and anti-hegemonic insurgency with little or no dependence on states, and the largely uncalculable threats of new military technologies combining e.g. Most times, conflicts that are found in culturally diverse communities are largely unavoidable. 3. For regional integration in Africa to be a success, Africa’s leaders will have to move beyond grand gestures and abstract visions. The European Union has a series of languages that it deems to be the official languages of the EU government. This is a video giving information on Factors Hindering Regional Integration, under the topic Challenges and Opportunity of Regional Integration . This, it may be argued, is the new logic of Western, imperial military hegemony. 0000006068 00000 n 15, No. Civil society must not only provide a check to both the state and the market, but it must be the leading force in the new economics. Even under the condition of functional interdependence globally of the competing blocs, climate change, development failures and resource depletion combined with nuclear proliferation and the evolution of new military technologies may easily lead to completely new types of wars with planetary consequences. European integration has gained popular support and political legitimacy from two great promises. We are intrigued by the comment of President Hugo Chavez during the World Social Forum in Caracas in 2006 that these practices “go beyond the logic of capitalism.”. reserve currency must work under democratic political guidance and pursue socially and ecologically responsible monetary policies; As a result, African governments have concluded a very large number of regional integration arrangements, several of which have However, some of the more prominent ones have either not moved beyond a primitive stage, as in the case of SAARC in South Asia, or have been based on neoliberal principles, like ASEAN in Southeast Asia. y�8D�������W�v 5���$l/��tA�biK�. Regional trade arrangements also played a role. The evolution of constitutionalism in the post-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe: some lessons for the post-Soviet space. In this tradition markets and trade have often been given politically very expansive interpretations: in the EU (as in the WTO) the free movement of trade in goods has not been enough. Other developments and challenges: looking beyond the Customs Union. Obama brings the US back on a more Keynesian track and into multilateral cooperation, but his victory was more due to the catastrophic results of Bush’s politics than of a desire for fundamental redirection of US power. 6. 0000000856 00000 n of Africa’s development. Regional cooperation in the South should not only protect the weak. 213-218. Democratising the politics and economy of globalisation is important but difficult. In the EU the centralising and liberalising Lissabon treaty is back on track. The Bretton Woods institutions and the WTO-framwork have been insufficient or even dysfunctional for development, ecological responsibility and economic stability, especially for the global South. It is important for us all that this political and cultural resurgence is placed at the centre of regional integration here. Less attention has, for understandable reasons, been paid to the contribution of Europe to global security. The consequence is that wars between the leading countries of Europe has become highly unlikely but that their integration between them may become, or has perhaps already become, counter-productive for global security. Regional protection and strategic cooperation should be built with a clear commitment to global solidarity. For this and other reasons the primacy of economic policy instruments is a deep-seated feature of European integration. Latin American regional cooperation may also benefit from solidarity and cooperation with regional cooperation in other regions of the South. He is the author of 15 books, the latest of which is The Food Wars (New York: Verso, 2009). 0000008047 00000 n Latin America, with its strong tradition of mass participation in politics, progressive left movements, liberation theology and its great cultural variety should be a strong region in this search. Special care must be taken at every step to keep economic policies within democratic control and to avoid spill-over from economic policies on social protection, environmental protection and other vital policy areas: Since the 1980s the main left and centre argument in favour of deepening European integration has no longer been the argument from peace. Box MP167 Mount Pleasant Harare, Zimbabwe. 4. Nevertheless, as we have seen during the past months the demise of neo-liberalism does not mean the end of capitalism nor does it automatically change the balance of power or fundamental policies. Tarifa por debajo del costo (deuda) From the perspective of radical and comprehensive democracy building from below and strengthening the disempowered is essential in all responses to the crisis. Amortización de la deuda de Itaipú. However, his work dealt neither on how cultural identity will be achieved nor its challenges as regional goals. endstream endobj 244 0 obj <>stream Drawing on analysis and inspiration coming from the 18th century German enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant and others, the idea has been to promote peace through functional integration of the national economies in the region. The Challenges of Regional Integration in Africa and Policy Options A Summary of Conclusions and Policy Issues for Discussion @inproceedings{2008TheCO, title={The Challenges of Regional Integration in Africa and Policy Options A Summary of Conclusions and Policy Issues for … Bilal, S. Is the EU model of regional integration? These can emerge on the basis of the variety of sustainable life-styles, democracies and civilisational values existing today especially in the global South. Situación de la integración eléctrica en América del Sur. Regional integration refers to the process of states coming together to sign agreements where they agree to cooperate in certain areas common to them. The challenges of regional integration in Southern Africa Mark Chingono* and Steve Nakana University of Zimbabwe, P. O. The global South must take the lead. (In the EU this is still not the case!) Again, I do not want to overstate the case, but it appears to me that all countries in Latin Ameica could gain in economic and cultural terns from deepened cooperation between them and also with other Southern regions, even if it has to happen at the cost of laxer links to Europe and North America. My second point today is that regional politics needs to be recognised more than before as a relevant arena of political initiative in its own right. of the integration process, and the current challenges. A commitment to open regionalism and deep integration would help address some of these problems and create a healthy basis for regional and global trade integration. The new argument has been the argument from globalization. This year 100 years have passed since Gandhi wrote his definitive statement, the pivotal pamphlet Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule on board a ship between Britain and South  Africa. But these must be complemented by stronger powers to question and interfere in the formation of this balance by national parliaments. ;n�I�\N��#K�?NzaLR��_�*)��,���7 ��1t�=�L1yx��u���)�� ��� MERCOSUR evolved from open regionalism to postliberal regionalism in the course of the first 15 years of the 21st century. 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