This will help us to improve better. Authenticity: The remains in the Neolithic site of Burzahom narrates the cultural sequence of human habitation from 3000 BCE to 1000 BCE (Periods I and II belong to the Neolithic period, Period III to the Megalithic period, and Period IV to the Early Historical period (or Post-megalithic period). The interaction of local and foreign influences are demonstrated by the art, architecture, customs and rituals as also possibly by the language as demonstrated by some graffiti marks on pottery and others. The carved figures are distinctly visible. Archaeologists have also found cooking hearths both inside and outside the huts, which suggests that, depending on the weather, people could cook food either indoors or outdoors. Pithouses, also called pit structures, were the most common form of Native American dwelling found in the Sonoran Desert from at least 4,000 years ago into the 1400s. [2] Periods I and II represent the Neolithic era; Period III the Megalithic era (of massive stone menhirs and wheel turned red pottery); and Period IV relates to the early Historical Period (Post-megalithic period). The earliest remains of pit burial is ascribed to the Period II. Some pits were shallower, with depth of about 91 cm (as opposed to 3.95 meters depth) and were possibly either storage pits or those used as dwellings during warmer period. a) 1,2 and 3 b) 1 and 2 c) 2 only d) 3 only 4. Rubble structures associated with the Megalithic men have also been found. The elevation of the site is 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) above sea-level. [3][4] It is the northernmost excavated Neolithic site of India. Answered By . Name two Neolothic tools which are used to grind grain even today. Ans : True. The practice of agriculture has been established through the tools and finding of palaeo-botanic analysis. Tools and pottery have also been found at various sites. Shallow pits of circular shape of 60–91 centimetres (24–36 in) diameter adjoining the housing pits were found to contain bones of animals and also tools made of bones (of antlers used for making tools) and stones (harpoons, needles with or without eyes, awls). Ans. Name two Neolithic tools which are used to grind grain even today. Seven evidences of complete and four incomplete evidences of trepanning of human skulls have also been noted. The Neolithic property at Burzahom provides a detailed insight into the material equipment of the Neolithic people when they even did not have invented technique of pottery manufacturing. What were pit-houses and where have they been found? These may have provided shelter in cold weather. Q6: Burial is an arrangement for _____. For instance, in Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. Burzahom's ceramic industry was mostly of hunting based culture and is different from the Chinese Neolithic pottery. Pottery was also superior, of red ware type with slips and wheel turned. [5] The location is in a high terrace which is part of the flood of the Jhelum river and has Karewa soil (clay) formation. The results of excavations have provided dynamics of interchange of ideas between central Asia and South West Asia through the valley of Kashmir which acted as  a bridge between higher Himalayas and beyond on the one hand, and Gangetic plains and peninsular India on the other hand during the third millennium B.C. Criteria (ii): The Neolithic property at Burzahom provides a detailed insight into the material equipment of the Neolithic people when they even did not have invented technique of pottery manufacturing. Answer: Mortars and pestles are Neolithic tools used even today for grinding grain. Post-holes around the pits revealed that the superstructures were made of wood built over compacted Karewa soil floors. Ans : Herding. Q27. D. Hallur . Also, Hariparigam, and Awantipura, in the same area, are related. Pit houses vary in plan, from round to oval to square to rectangular. Answer: Mortars and pestles are Neolithic tools used even today for grinding grain. [11][18] Another pottery item which is of interest is a polished black ware in globular shape jar with a long neck and flaring mouth. Archaeologists have also found fire places both inside and outside the huts which suggests that, depending on the weather people could cook food either indoors or outdoors. toppr. [3] The antiquities did not reveal any signs of burials sites.[11]. Archaeologists have also found cooking hearthsboth inside and outside the huts. The several pottery shards of steel grey, dull red, brown or buff have been recovered from the pits as one of the material remain. Answer: Pit-houses were built by people by digging into the ground, with steps leading into them. Mehrgarh – Burials with Grave goods Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched? The stone and bone-wares of this period shows distinct development in finish. People in Burzahom lived in rectangular houses. These may have provided shelter in cold weather. Chirand is a site in Kashmir. In the Period II, the finds excavated revealed that people had moved out from pit dwelling to structures built at the ground level. provided the early Neolithic people of Burzahom protection from the elements during bitter winters in Kashmir.The pits were usually round or oval, and The subterranean pit-dwelling of Neolithic men (Aceramic Neolithic/Period I) were cut into the natural soil usually dug out with long stone celts, the cuts-marks of which can still be traced. What were pit-houses and where have they been found? These pits were filled with ash, stones and potsherds. The site has a commanding view of the Dal lakewhic… Burzahom means, place of birch. Q4: Pit- house have been constructed to get protection from the cold temperatures. It is 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) to the northwest of Srinagar on the Naseem-Shalimar road. Pit houses might have provided shelter in cold weather. They are found in Burzahom in Kashmir valley. For example in Burzahom (Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. In the next stage (Ceramic Neolithic/Period II) structures in mud or mud bricks with regular floors made of rammed karewa soil, often reusing erstwhile pits by filling in with mud and finished by plastering a layer of mud, covered with a thin coat of red ochre as well as timbre showing evolution in construction techniques. The Menhirs, boulders formed due to the varying temperatures, were brought down from the hills with great effort by the people and installed to mark notable events of the community. [11], The people who resided here were characterized as "long headed dolichocranic". They have excavated a cellar here. In some of the pits the stratification revealed ash and charcoal layers, which denoted human occupancy. Consider the … …same is the case at Burzahom in the Vale of Kashmir, where deep pit dwellings are associated with ground stone axes, bone tools, and gray burnished pottery. [3][7], The extensive excavations done at this site, unearthing stratified cultural deposits, were the first of their type in Kashmir. One of the interesting burials recovered is that of five wild dogs and antler's horn. [3][11], Pottery finds showed better finish compared to the earlier Period I. Late Kot-Diji type pots were found belonging to Period Ib. [16], The remarkable find during this period was of pits which were inferred as dwelling units; these were in circular or oval shape dug in compact natural Karewa soil formation. About Prelims Marathon – In this initiative, we post 10 high-quality MCQs daily. The Burzahom site is a prehistoric settlement in the village of the same name in the Srinagar District. False. Ans : Weak people. B. Mehrgarh. Questions are based on the static part of … Some Megalithic Period Menhirs are next to Neolithic pits, suggesting a gradual transition between the two phases. The other stone slab is 48–27 centimetres (19–11 in) which depicts, on one polished side, sketches of hunting scenes such as a hunter spearing (with a Ker) an antlered deer and another hunter in the process of releasing an arrow, and a sketch of the movement of the Sun, at two levels. The exposed pits and the layout are well protected. Burzahom was the first Neolithic site to be discovered in Indian held Kashmir. Q10. The Burzahom site is a prehistoric settlement in the village of the same name in the Srinagar District. The remains of the site document the gradual change in the nature of dwelling spaces among early societies. [14] The economy of the people was found to be based on hunting and gathering with a nascent stage of cultivation practices. Criteria (iii): The core aspects of the Burzahom Neolithic seem to have originated and organically evolved on the soil of Kashmir, and bear an exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition which has now largely disappeared. Q5: Name One of the important occupations taken up by the tribes of Middle Stone Age. 2. In the pictures of Burzahom sting to 1960’s one can see endless plain which today has become urban jungle of concrete houses. The burial practices and type of tools recovered from the site were inferred as having close resemblance to those found in the North Chinese Neolithic culture. Burzahom represents the southernmost extent of what is known as Northern Neolithic culture of Asia. Question 5: List three ways in which the lives of farmers and herders would have been different from that of hunter-gatherers. Archaeologists have also found cooking hearths both inside and outside the huts, which suggests that, depending on the weather, people could cook food either indoors or outdoors The range of tools recovered from the site shows the evolution in tool making Neolithic men skilled hunters and their knowledge in applying the implements for cultivation. [3], The site is maintained in the form that has been excavated, representing the natural setting of the Neolithic people. 9. For instance, in Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. Ans. answr. Ans. Periods I and II provided evidence for wheat, barley and lentil cultivation. Evidence of the “aceramic Neolithic” stage is reported at Gufkral, another site in the Kashmir region, which has been dated by radiocarbon to… The findings, recorded in stratified cultural deposits representing prehistoric human activity in Kashmir, are based on detailed investigations that cover all aspects of the physical evidence of the site, including the ancient flora and fauna. The material culture recovered constitutes of a gritty red ware pottery, manufactured in potters wheel, metal objects and few tools made of bone and stone continued. [19], An interesting find of this period is of two standalone finished flat stone slabs. People of those times used to dig shallow pits in the soil and live in them. Archaeologists have also found cooking hearths both inside and outside the huts, which suggests that, depending on the weather, people could cook food either indoors or outdoors. The site has a commanding view of the Dal lake which is about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) away. The core aspects of the Burzahom Neolithic seem to have originated and organically evolved on the soil of Kashmir, and bear an exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition which has now largely disappeared. The structures built were superior compared to the earlier period, and were made from mud-bricks. Burzahom archaeological site Similarly one may ask, what were pit houses made out of? True. Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party. Ascribed to the same era are subterranean dwellings of quadrangular section, covered by a layer of birch, with a centrally placed stone or clay hearth and storage pit. Craftsmanship was superior during this period with finds of wheel made durable hard red ware, copper objects, and tools made of bone and stone. 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