A volume ranging from 10 to 40 cm3 was analyzed to obtain 95 stained individuals. The highest TOC and PTEs contents were found in protected areas. Density 1 values ranged from 95 specimens per 60 cm3 of sediment to 296 specimens per 10 cm3 of sediment. Other species also reach relatively high relative abundance, at least locally, such as Elphidium margaritaceum (<54%), Lepidodeuterammina ochracea (<52%), Lobatula lobatula (<45%), Rotaliammina concava (<32%), Bolivina ordinaria (<31%), Cibicides ungerianus (<19%), Planorbulina mediterranensis (<17%), Cribroelphidium excavatum, Elphidium gerthi (<14%), Elphidium complanatum (<14%), Bolivina pseudoplicata (<13%), Remaneica helgolandica (<13%), Bulimina elongata/B. This allows for the use of these foraminifera to quantify environmental quality with respect to coral health. For instance, in their environment, they serve as a food source for such organisms as isopods, small fish and marine snails, etc. In fact, it is expected that the ABC curves can be used to identify both natural and anthropogenic stressors. In fact, they have been successful inhabitants from deep oceans to brackish water lagoons, estuaries, and even rarely in freshwater streams, lakes, and so on . That emissary has a total length of 1061 m and a diameter of 400 mm. A scarcely oxygenated, more saline environment with fine bottom sediment enriched in vegetal debris was related to a prevalently agglutinated assemblage characterized by low species diversity (H-index 1.60–2.68), with high dominance of E. advenus (up to 83.6%) associated to Ammonia tepida, and high foraminiferal density, recognized in the Middle Branch. Rodrigo Aluizio (Federal University of Paraná), Dr. Michel Michaelovitch de Mahiques (Oceanographic Institute, São Paulo University), and Dr. Aurea Ciotti (Biology Marine Center, University of São Paulo) who are gratefully acknowledged for the technical support provided. Benthic foraminifera highlighted the degradation of most, if not all, study sites, ranking most of the TWs in “Moderate” to “Bad” EcoQs. They are benthic bottom dwellers characterized by high diversity and abundance. In sediments, Eh values ranged from 134 to −222 mv, and pH between 4.2 and 10.9. The benthic foraminifera species that occur in the deep marine system of the Southwestern Atlantic (continental slope of the Campos Basin) are mainly controlled by local hydrodynamics, which mainly controls changes in the particulate organic matter flux, quantity, and quality of the organic matter in … Your email address * Please enter a valid email address. The higher values of SMGS are common in samples collected along the inlet and S. Jacinto channels where the tidal currents are stronger and reach frequently velocities >2 m s−1 , and in stations of other channels due to stronger currents activity in interaction with local topographic effects. Ammonia tepida was the most abundant species in all the samples (38.5–66%). This study investigates living benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of anthropogenic activities in a coastal area within the Gulf of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), affected by industrial and urban activities, and evaluates the environmental quality through the calibration of a Tolerant Species index (%TSstd). The distribution of the living foraminifera species results in several blooms throughout the year, for this reason the abundance and diversity of foraminifera is naturally temporally variable . Among these, the central region of the channel has the largest petroliferous terminals of South America, “Dutos e Terminais Centro Sul” (DTCS) of PETROBRAS. Groups 1–4 of the cluster analysis from rainy period (2009). As microorganisms are among the lowest levels of the food chains, they are the first to denounce the negative effects of pollution. Sediments in the DTCS area were silty with high concentrations of total organic carbon (1.7–2.4%), total nitrogen (0.2–0.3%), total sulfur (0.4–0.6%), and total phosphorous (0.12–0.18%) and inorganic phosphorous (0.07–0.11%). The following species presented significant relative abundance: Ammonia parkinsoniana (2–19.6%), Bolivina striatula (0.8–11.6%), Globocassidulina crassa (<18.8%), Globocassidulina subglobosa (<10.2%), Nonionella opima (<9.1%), Buliminella elegantissima (2–8.5%), Bolivina fragilis (<8.5%), Bulimina marginata (<5.9%), Pseudononion japonicum (<5.8%), Hopkinsina pacifica (<5.3%), Rosalina floridensis (<6.1%), Gavelinolepsis praegeri (<5.5%), and Hanzawaia boueana (<5.1%). Benthic foraminifera are unicellular, aquatic (marine and brackish) eukaryotic organisms. According to Fatela et al. Together, this indicates that morphological heritability may be low across Foraminifera or at least in taxa exposed to a high degree of environmental instability such as planktic and shallow-living benthic foraminifera. ABC curves of the continental shelf assemblages of foraminifers. illustrated include the most common benthic foraminiferal species now living, or having lived in the middle regions of Chesapeake Bay over the past millennium. The H′ and J′ values varied between 1.59 and 3.25 and between 0.64 and 0.93, respectively. Ammonia tepida was the most abundant species in almost all samples (5–56.1%). Foraminifera is one of single-celled protozoa, living in the water environment especially marine waters. Both indices presented low values, indicating low species diversity, due to the dominance of few species. São Sebastião Channel (SSC) is an open area where industrial and domestic effluents are separately disposed, but under similar natural conditions, offering the opportunity to compare their impact on benthic biota . The planktic and benthic foraminifera of the upper Tortonian and lower Messinian successions allow us to constrain the age and palaeo-environment of deposition. bc) based on living benthic foraminifera. According to Fortis et al. However, even more fascinating is that they actively roam around in the seafloor to depths of over 5 cm! This higher proportion of A. tepida is due to a decline of stenobiotic species. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Different marine and terrestrial contributions were identified in the cave based on foraminiferal ecozones. To register your interest please contact firstname.lastname@example.org providing details of the course you are teaching. A semienclosed coastal lagoon (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal), an estuarine system (São Sebastião Channel, SE Brazil), a continental shelf sector (Campos Basin, SE Brazil), and a segment of continental slope (Campos Basin, SE Brazil) are used as examples. Foraminifera and testate amoebae are protists observed in all marine and continental aquatic environments, respectively. Monitoring Index. However, it is known that benthic foraminifera are very tolerant to oxygen depletion, and some species appear to be resistant to hypoxic and periodic anoxic conditions . Ecology and Applications of Benthic Foraminifera presents a comprehensive and global coverage of the subject using all the available literature. Because of these dissimilar times, the local hydrodynamics can change and, consequently, variations can occur in the particulate organic matter flux, and quantity and quality of the organic matter on the sea floor [73, 75, 76]. Benthic Foraminifera as Bioindicator of Coral Reef Environmental Condition Based on Foram Index in Natuna Islands, Province of Riau Islands - Neliti Foraminifera is one of single-celled protozoa, living in the water environment especially marine waters. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera have played a central role in biostratigraphic, paleoecological, and paleoceanographical research for over a century. In general, the sites polluted with sewage rich in toxic metals had low foraminiferal abundance, high percentages of A. tepida, low percentage of epiphytic species, and more deformed fauna . Tidal currents affect not only the sediments' texture but also their chemical composition in Aveiro Lagoon [37, 38]. In this case, only living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera were analyzed in combined samples collected in four different slices of the cores (0–2, 2–5, 5–10, and 10–15 cm) to understand the distribution patterns and their ecology. Foraminiferal densities ranged from 0.5 (TB9) to 25 (TB7) specimens per 10 cm3 of sediment. Mechnikov National University, Department of Physical and Marine Geology, 2 Dvoryanskaya Str., Odessa 65082, Ukraine . The ABC curves are compared together with the W statistic calculation . © 2019 The Author(s). The environmental studies using foraminifera were started by the end of the 1950s. The sediments sampled for geochemical analysis were immediately cool preserved on board. The heterotrophic activity in Aveiro Lagoon is intense , resulting in negative sedimentary redox potential values in many areas mostly where fine sediments and high organic matter contents are accumulated. The Laranjo Bay area (Figure 1) is also polluted owing to release wastewaters of plants of the chemical complex of Estarreja . The parameters for the organic carbon and total nitrogen were kindly provided by Dr. Carlos E., Rezende (Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense), the particulate organic matter vertical flux by MScs. Benthic Foraminifera and Environmental Changes in Long Island Sound. The benthic Ammotium cassis (Parker 1870) is a Northern Hemisphere cold-water species, which needs high salinities for reproduction (Olsson, 1976). The oil separation techniques, used in the wastewater treatment plants, primarily remove particulate matter and dispersed oil, while dissolved hydrocarbons remain in the discharged water . Pararotalia cananeiaensis is an herbivorous, epifaunal species characteristic of a marine environment. , contaminated rainwater and industrial water are treated in systems that use mostly decantation to separate oil from water (SAO = Separação de Águas Oleosas). . Its axis, where the largest depths (30–50 m) are found, is located closer to the island, due to the erosion and/or structural conditioning of the bottom. From this on, other projects were executed in the Campos Basin, such as “Campos Basin Deep-sea Environmental Program” (Oceanprof) and “Environmental Heterogeneity of the Campos Basin” (Habitats) projects. It is composed by a series of channels among intertidal areas such as mudflats, salt marsh, and old saltpans. This study presents the results of the third survey carried out in summer 2016 in the Bue Marino cave, as part of a research project started in 2014 aimed at the application of Benthic Foraminifera (BF) as ecological indicators in Mediterranean marine caves for the identification of different habitats and their environmental interpretation. The sediments’ concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the SSC and AR regions were lower than their corresponding probable effect levels (PELs) . The foraminiferal samples were washed trough a 63 μm sieve, dried in an oven (<60°C), and then picked under a stereomicroscope. It ranges from the coastal plain to the São Paulo Plateau, the outer boundary of the salt tectonic coinciding with the boundary between continental and oceanic crusts . However, among the foraminifers, there are species known as k-strategists that correspond to the characteristics mentioned by Pianka , and therefore, the application of the ABC curves to assess environmental disturbance could be successful. Environmental response of living benthic foraminifera in Kiel Fjord, SW Baltic Sea. [46, 53], which described in detail the methods of sedimentological and geochemical analysis. Density values are equivalent to the total number of living individuals in 20 cm3 (volume) or 10 cm2 (area). species were previously considered to be the most heavy metal-tolerant foraminifer species. In Aveiro Lagoon, H. germanica is mostly associated with confined lagoonal sites with high content in organic matter under low currents activity and waters with relatively high salinity. In this area, 51 species  were identified as belonging to the suborders Rotaliina (33 species), Textulariina (11 species), and Miliolina (7 species). In São Sebastião Channel, the sediments near the “Dutos e Terminais Centro Sul” (DTCS) of PETROBRAS were enriched by As, Cu, and Ni, with concentrations exceeding TEL; these levels are associated with adverse biological effects. The description of the foraminiferal analysis can be observed in Martins et al. Foraminiferal assemblages structure was analyzed by using the Shannon index (H′) , the equitability (J′), calculated according to the Pielou index , and the species richness, calculated from density 1. Ammonia tepida has been invariably reported as a potential bioindicator of pollution at the majority of the coastal polluted sites . 2020; 17(10):3741. The South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW), a colder, nutrient-rich water mass, enters the continental shelf increasing local primary production and associated secondary productivity. It demonstrates how living foraminifera can be used to monitor modern-day environmental change. Foraminifera are eukaryotic unicellular microorganisms inhabiting all marine environments. and Brizalina spp., with low particulate organic matter flux values, muddy sediments, and more refractory organic matter. Calcareous species are divided into those whose shells have a clear or translucent appearance (hyaline) with tiny perforations (pores) and those whose shells are white and opaque and have no perforations (porcelaneous). Since then, the number of works aiming to study the response of benthic foraminifera to environmental changing, namely to pollution, increased significantly . They are benthic bottom dwellers characterized by high diversity and abundance. Even in brine channels of Antarctic sea ice they have been found. Benthic foraminifera live in, or on, the seafloor. Agglutinated benthic foraminifera respond to changes in the benthic environment, and their quantitative distribution in marine sediments can be used to provide important palaeoecological information. Salinity is a key factor for governing the structure (diversity) of foraminifera assemblages, as well as the concentrations of PTE, whereas the sensitive species (“marine species”) avoid the inner lagoonal environments. The occurrence of these species seems to reflect the Brazil Current System (BCS). Continental shelf of Campos Basin area. 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