See n.35 above. ([g]at < gadu 'let, allow'). Bwlch, and Kyfwlch, and Sefwlch, the sons of Cleddyf Kyfwlch, the grandsons of Cleddyf Difwlch. < nodi See n.68 above. Guest translation; Jones & Jones translation. And every one that beholds the light, and every one that opens and shuts the eye, let them shew him respect, and serve him, some with gold-mounted drinking-horns, others with collops cooked and peppered, until food and drink can be prepared for him. Their three horses, Hwyrdyddwd, and Drwgdyddwd, and Llwyrdyddwg. See p.### n.### above. 137Reidwn mab Beli. See p.### for a full discussion of this important episode, and pp.### ff for what it tells us about the cultural demographics and 'deep-historical' processes enfolded in the text of Culhwch ac Olwen. Greidawl is also mentioned in Triad 19, as one of the Three Enemy Subduers (galouyd). Cluim p.###). As we have seen Twrch is one of a number of words in the Insular Celtic lexicon meaning 'boar'. When I came here first, the great valley you see before you was a wooded glen, a race of men came to it and it was destroyed, and there grew another wood in it. 'Alas, Scream and Yell'. Spoke they "May you prosper,330 Ysbaddaden Bencawr, from God and from man.". Culhwch and Olwen With Richard M. Loomis The oldest Arthurian tale, Culhwch and Olwen, survives in two Welsh manuscripts of the fourteenth century, but evidence of language and allusion support the conclusion that the work was given substantially its present form toward the end of the eleventh century. Taruedum itself looks as though it derive from the Celtic tarṵos 'bull'. Let us look together.287 Until you admit she does not exist anywhere in the world,288 or we actually find her, we will not part from you. 202 Cas mab Saidi. And Gwevyl the son of Gwestad (on the day that he was sad, he would let one of his lips drop below his waist, while he turned upon the other like a cap upon his head). 'Famous of Britain'. 184 y uron llifdwr lit. 195 Gweir Gwrhyd Enwir 'Gwair False Valour'. And his father inquired of him, "What has come over thee my son, and what aileth thee? There is very little evidence for the prior existence of Pryderi or his father Pwyll in the Welsh tradition before his appearance in the twelfth-century sources discussed on pp.### above. This Fráechán is one of a group of men who was turned into a pig, as was the case for Grugyn. As we have seen from the hagiography of Gildas (p.###) this translation encouraged at euhemeristic identification with mythology of island otherworld. There is a faint recollection here of the 'vultures of Elei' mentioned in Pa Gur. He said to his wife 'If there is any part of me in your son, maiden, his heart will always be cold, and there will be no heat in his hands. ", "I want a pledge from you, that you will do no worse than is right for me. 538 gwein 'sheath'. 'from when the getting of land'. Charlotte Guest's suggestion of Pwll Crochan near Pembroke is not implausible. The last three appear like variants of the 'fast runner' type - one of the characteristic helpers in the Six Go Through the World tale type. 446 Glineu eil Taran is probably identical with the Gliueu eil Taran listed at the end of the Second Branch of the Mabinogi, as one of the Seven Survivors from the war in Ireland (PKM p.44, Parker (2005) p.309). Berth himself is otherwise unknown. ", Spoke they "Do not shoot at us. 'Taliesin Head of [the] Bards'. That both of these accounts may derive from pre-Christian tradition is considered in more detail on p.### above. Legal terminology is once again being invoked here. And so that you believe it, one of you come here on my shoulders.". Here, he belongs to that uncertain territory between the human and the bestial which characterises the monstrous/pagan demographics in Culhwch ac Olwen. Culhwch and Olwen, also spelled Kulhwch and Olwen, Welsh Culhwch ac Olwen, ( c. 1100), Welsh prose work that is one of the earliest known Arthurian romances. And from there they came, the two of them, over to Celli Wig in Cornwall, and the leash from Dillus Farfog with them, and Cai gave it into the hand of Arthur. The White Book text presents an abbreviated varient hawd yw genyf... / kyt keffych... for most of this list, although one might suspect that the full version (as given in R) would have been recited during oral performances. Those are the ones, Nynniaw and Pebiaw,356 whom God turned into oxen for their sins. Nuadu himself, of course, is cognate with Nudd, the father of Gwyn himself - throwing up some fairly murky suggestions about the nature of this side of the love-triangle, of which the medieval cyfarwyddyd may have been dimly aware. It will be no worse for you there than for Arthur in the court. And then another of his pigs was killed: Gwys516 was his name. In Welsh mythology, Olwen is the daughter of the giant Ysbaddaden and cousin of Goreu. And it will not be of any use either unless he is alive when it is pulled from his beard with wooden tweezers,438 since it will become brittle in death.". Thompson and Bromwich cite K H Jackson's opinion Bannog (CO p.123) was the old British name for the range of mountains running along the northern border of the Central Belt area. Now it is not a handbreadth in height. 'teacher, master, professor'. Then he stood at bay, and then he killed Echel Forddwyt Twll,520 and Arwyli Eil Gwyddog Gwyr,521 and many men and dogs besides. They said where Mabon son of Modron was in prison. Otherwise unknown. I am not aware of any other references to either father or daughter elsewhere in the Welsh tradition. And complete be thy favour, and thy fame, and thy glory, throughout all this Island. 249 Pwyll Hanner Dyn lit. 308 "Berth yd ytwyt, Heusawr." For the use of [g]oruc as an auxillary verb, see GMW p.160. Their feet were swift as their thoughts when bearing a message). Arthur took a gold comb, and [a pair] of shears with silver loops upon it, and he combed his hair. It was not the dogs which Ysbaddaden had named which killed the boar, but Cafall the dog of Arthur instead. He appears in Triad 46 as the owner of Cornillo, one of the Prif Uuch 'Chief Cows' of the Island of Britain, and a magical knife in Tri Thlws ar Deg Ynys Prydain ('Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain') and in the genealogical tracts. Nothing else is known of Tangwen herself. Here, in Culhwch ac Olwen, Kelli and Cuel[i] seem to have been interpreted as personal names. It will be worse now when I make my way on upward slopes.338 Like the sting of a gadfly did the poisoned iron hurt me!339 Cursed be the smith who has made it and the anvil on which it was made, so painful it is!". It won't be of any use dead because it will become brittle. He was nephew to Arthur, the son of his sister, and his cousin. As noted (p.###), Torc Triath (the Twrch Trwyth's Irish cognate) was described as 'King of Boars' in the Lebor Gabála , so the two boars may well be considered - in some senses - doublets of one another. Like Gwrgwst (see n.447 below), the name Taran appears to derive from a Pictish context 447 Gwrgwst Letlwm lit. Note the repeated use of the 3rd pers. This evocatively-named figure is otherwise unknown. And as soon as he saw her he recognised her. This may have been the source of the shape-shifting power which Menw exhibits later on in Culhwch ac Olwen (for example, prior to the hunting of the Twrch). Cynddelig Gyfarwydd was called by Arthur: "Go on this mission with chieftain." No company had ever come [by] without his doing harm or deadly injury to it. [Then] Arthur's host dispersed, one by one and two by two. "540, One of the men said "There is, the blood of the Very Black Witch, daughter of the Very White Witch, from the Valley of Desolation in the Uplands of Hell.". And they went on until they came to other side of the wall from prison, where there was a weeping and wailing which they could hear from the other side of the wall from them. ", "Not so, blessed Kai. ", "Though you may get that [...] The two oxen of Gwlwlydd Winau,353 yoked together to till the rough land smooth over there. A certain Hu[n]abwy mab Gwryon appears later on in the list. While all of these genealogical traditions show signs of corruption, it is reasonable to suppose Gwrgwst Ledlwm had been known as an ancestral figure by some dynasties in the Border region during the early period, perhaps recalling the period of Pictish ascendency that seems to have prevailed in the eastern areas of the Border region during the early sixth century (see p.### etc.). 326 Nyd oed olwg tegach no'r eidi lit. None of this prevented these names being included in subsequent genealogies (e.g. 359 dalho lit. ", "I will give the prisoner to you, though I had not been prepared to give him to anyone. The love of Culhwch was the fair Olwen, daughter of the giant Ysbaddaden. 378 Drutwyn ceneu Greit mab Eri. 262 I have discussed the parallels between this figure and the description of Pryderi in Triad 26 elsewhere (Parker, 2005, p.169). Gwadyn Ossol, if he stood upon the top of the highest mountain in the world, it would become a level plain under his feet. And so it was that Culhwch got Olwen daughter of Ysbaddaden Bencawr. The same word is also used to denote female genitalia. 'when everyone is allowed in their throng'. 347 Hyt tra y'm gatter yn byw lit. Fflam mab Nwyfre ('Flame son of Sky') is otherwise unknown, but apiece with the other radient/celestial associations of this group of figures. Brittany. Comparisons have been drawn with the Irish form Caladbolg, which occurs in the Book of Leinster recension of the Tain Bó Cualigne as the name of the sword inherited by Fergus mac Róig. However, the reverse is equally possible - if not more likely - with the original tale of a raid on Ireland being 'mythologised' into the story of an otherworld expedition which we find alluded to in Preiddeu Annwfn. It dates from something like the 11th century. "Whence, man, [came]314 this ring to you? 318 y geissaw mynet dwyglaw mynwgyl udunt lit. 'without visiting an abode' 5 Sef y dyuu myn lit. Dogs were set loose on him from every side. "Does anyone know" said Arthur "whereabouts she is? 268 Kelemon merch Kei. As Bromwich and Evans (CO p. 158) point out, the name Grugyn (< Grug 'Heather' + dim. The hosts of Ireland come and fight with them. 267 Merch Unig Clememyl. 1325.It is the longest of the surviving Welsh prose tales. The significance of this Breton connection is discussed on p.### below. One of the more significant figures in the Court List, who appears at several points during the subsequent episodes. 'The walking from them that day'. Later in the text, of course, we have Odger son of Aed, another son of the Irish king with a curiously foreign-sounding name. 'The Mound of Mourning'. 'before'. This kind of stylised iteration represents a characteristic form that is found in a number other archaic vernacular Celtic contexts, e.g. And first they seized hold of him by his feet, and [then] ducked him in the Severn, until it was washing over him. If this is a scribal error, it is significant one - in line with the central thematic concerns of the text. Here I have followed Sioned Davies in translating the idiom taraw [l]lgyat as 'glimpse'. While we cannot be certain how much of an independent existance Dillus himself might have had in the Welsh tradition, the motif of giants and beard-chopping seems to have been well-established within the Arthurian complex, as can be seen by the cognate adventure described by Geoffrey of Monmouth in HRB X:165, in which Arthur defeats (and de-beards) the giant Ritho. The name of this character has a Northumbrian ring, with its distinctive Os- praenominal element. The First Branch text refers this dynasty as the dyledogion 'The Entitled Ones of the Island'. Unless he knows something of the one whom you seek, I know of no-one who might know. During his whole life, a blade of reed grass bent not beneath his feet, much less did one ever break, so lightly did he tread.) 458 See n.367 above. ", "I have. And during every other part of the year but this, the office is filled by Huandaw, and Gogigwc, and Llaeskenym, and Pennpingyon, who goes upon his head to save his feet, neither towards the sky nor towards the earth, but like a rolling stone upon the floor of the court. The verbal nouns dyuot (coming) and agori (opening) are used here without a finite auxilliary verb (GMW p.161). Rheiddwn Arwyr is not known elsewhere, and may or may not be a duplicate of Rheiddwn son of Beli who is mentioned shortly after. 'Evil is to you however injuring your boy'. Wrnach said "O man, is it true what is said about you, that you are able to furbish swords?". Spoke one of the councilmen: "I knew of a woman who would have suited you well, that is the wife of King Doged."15. Ellylw daughter of Neol Cyn Crog283 - and she was alive for three lifetimes;284 Esyllt Fynwen and Esyllt Fyngul.285 In the name of all those did Culhwch son of Cilydd invoke his boon.286, Arthur said "O Chieftain, I have never heard about the maiden of whom you speak, nor her parents. This figure is otherwise unknown. 'Arthur in hosting'. Translated by Lady Charlotte Guest. 194 Gweir mab Kadellin Tal Aryant 'Gwair son of Cadellyn Silver Brow'. Patrick K. Ford This is one of the very early Arthurian tales, and of course it is Welsh. Cunorix 'Hound King', a name that is found on the famous Wroxeter inscription (see p.### above). On the third day Arthur himself fought with him for nine days and nine nights. 425 Ny chacharwyt neb kyn dostet yn llwrw carchar a mi lit. 409 Goreu 'Best' 410 Kellelprennu lit. 'drive an enchantment' 297 deuuant lit. 'and that one [for the] lives of three men alive'. [Then] the men asked Arthur what was the origin of that swine. I have a daughter who would suit any nobleman in the world. See nn.238-248 for commentary and explanation. Culhwch ac Olwen--Culhwch and Olwen While "Breudwyt Rhonabwy" ("The Dream of Rhonabwy") is missing from the White Book, it is assumed that it was originally placed between "Lludd" and "Owein," and later inserted into its place in the Red Book, at least according to J. G. Evans , … Berwyn, the son of Gerenhir, and Paris king of France, and Osla Gyllellvawr (who bore a short broad dagger. For Gwair Dathar Weinidog see p.### n.### above. 'the coming of him above the giant'. [There will be] feed for your dogs, corn for your horse and hot peppered-chops for yourself and wine overflowing, and delightful songs before you. And when I apportion my goods to guests and travellers from afar, it will be from your hand I will begin in this court. He stood over the giant,412 as if he was putting the sword in the scabbard. ", Then Cai arises. 421 Cwm Cawlywt 'Valley of Caw the Grey'. 'When they supposed their being near to the caer' 301 R stretches out this apparent distortion of time and space over two more days: Ar eildyd ar trydyd dyd y kerdessant ac o vreid y doethant hyt yno 'Over a second and a third day they walked, and with difficulty did they get there'. ", Said the youth, "That I will not do. This name appears at two points in the text of Y Gododdin (###refs###), strengthening the suggestion of the influence of the 'Gwynedd connection' on this body of Arthurian lore (see also n.##168## above). 143 See n.141 above. And Arthur himself went to the hunt with the dog Cafall462 in his hand. His origins, so far as we can discern them, seem to be in Irish pre-Christian tradition (for an alternative view, see Sims Williams (2011, pp.39-44). 'may you become better' 58 Penn Teyrned lit. However, as Bromwich and Roberts point out (p.143) there are other possible identifications. See John Koch 'Further to Tongu Do Dia Toinges Mo Thuath, &c.' Études Celtique 29 (1992) pp. The connection with Nwython adds some weight to the suggestion that this may have been a genuine feature of the early Arthurian tradition in its original northern context. See p.### for a full discussion of the demographics and geopolitics of Ynys Prydein in this text. This has been identified (CO p.166) with Castle Hill, near Llanilar (known as Kastell Garth Grugyn in some medieval sources). 329 a da yw ti o dihengy a'th byw genhyt lit. And he had another peculiarity,--so great was the heat of his nature, that, when it rained hardest, whatever he carried remained dry for a handbreadth above and a handbreadth below his hand; and when his companions were coldest, it was to them as fuel with which to light their fire. And rather than do what everyone [else] did then, alighting in front of the gate on the mounting block, he came inside on horseback.56, Spoke Culhwch: "May you prosper,57 Penn Teyrned58 of this island. And Arthur inquired of him who he was. 155 Nothing more is known about this individual. A particularly close association was implied, by mythology and prophetic verse, between Mabon and Owain Rheged. 'from my will' For abbreviations and publications referred to in these notes see the bibliography, "Two thirds of my life have come [and gone], and two thirds of your own. 406 Penn y wayw a daw y ar baladyr, ac yssef a dygrych y guaet y ar guynt, ac a diskyn ar y baladyr lit. Cai grabbed a log from the wood pile, and she came to meet them, arms outstretched.318 Cai placed a stake between her arms. And Uchdryd son of Erim, and Eus son of Erim and Henwas Edeiniog145 son of Erim, and Henbeddestyr146 son of Erim, and Sgilti Sgafndroed147 son of Erim.148 There were three peculiarities about these [last] three men: [in the case of] Henbedestyr, he never found any man who could keep pace with him on horse-back or on foot; [for] Henwas Edeiniog, no four-legged animal could ever keep up with him over the length of an acre (let alone for any longer than that);149 [as for] Sgilti Sgafndroed, when the desire came upon him to walk out150 on a mission for his lord, he never sought a road around where he knew he had to go; instead, wherever there was forest,151 he walk out along the branches of the forest, and wherever there was mountain, he would walk out on the tips of the reeds, and throughout his life no reed ever bent beneath his foot (let alone break) so light was he.152, Teithi Hen son of Gwynnan, whose country was overwelmed by the sea, and he himself only just escaped and came to Arthur.153 There was a peculiarity about his knife: since he had come here no haft would ever stay upon it, and because of that a sickness developed within him and there was a languor for the rest of his life, and from that he died.154 And Carnedyr son of Gofynion Hen,155 and [Gwenwynwyn son of Naf]156 Arthur's foremost champion was he, and Llygadrudd Emys157 and Gwrfoddw Hen158 - they were Arthur's uncles, brothers of his mother.159, Culfanawyd son of Goryion,160 and Llenleog Wyddel from Pentir Gamon,161 and Dyfnwal Moel,162 and Dunarth163 king[s] of the North [they were]164. And I have been in Caer Oeth and Annoeth, and in Caer Nevenhyr; nine supreme sovereigns, handsome men, saw we there, but never did I behold a man of equal dignity with him who is now at the door of the portal. She went off to her chamber. 109 Digon mab Alar lit. 'seventh') listed here, nothing more is known. 472 Sef oed y swyd ef yn wastat ymdwyn peir Arthur a dodi tan y danaw lit. The significance of beard-pulling and barbaring in Culhwch ac Olwen has been variously discussed by Knight (1963) Radner (1988), Sheehan (2005) and Nagy (2005). 362 Gwlgawt Gododin. 342 Menw mab Teirgveth. See also p.### n.### below. Whether these evocative names originate from pre-Christian magico-religious thinking or playful medieval onomastics is uncertain, but the reference to Lliaws mab Nwyfre 'Multitude son of Sky' in Triad 35 suggests that the 'family' of Nwyfre at some stage become associated with the mythology of the sons of Beli Mawr (see n.79and Parker (2005) pp.272 ff. This may be the result of a misinterpretation of an earlier form (see n.355 above), or it could be a comment on the relative cultural status of the two parties, with the use of stone (or stone-tipped) spears being a function of the primative 'pre-cultural' representation of Ysbaddaden and the monstrous/pre-Christian demographic, as opposed to the groomed, shaved and iron-using Christian court of Arthur (see p.### ff. Cai said "Skillful407 is Bedwyr, but he cannot do this craft. 90 Cynwas Curuagyl The epithet is composed of the elements cwr 'corner, edge, point' + bagl 'staff'. 519 Llwch Ewin 'Lake Claw'. Moren's epithet Mynog ('noble, courteous') is also prominent in the Gododdin (####). See n.387 above. This individual is not mentioned again in Culhwch ac Olwen itself, but makes an occasional appearance in certain later sources (CO p.76). "and he pressing into the pit until was happened to them its plucking in full with the wooden tweezers [of] his beard" 440 Eurei. The overall impression created by these last three names is of outlawry, lycanthropy, wilderness, theft and complicity: an interesting reminder of the less 'respectable' aspect of the Arthurian complex, with its roots in North British Fenian legend. This curious exchange looks like a mangled version of the introductory greetings exchanged by Culhwch and Arthur above. "Hope is to me the mission which you might go about it its getting" 417 Cilgwri = 'the cell of Gwri'. He rushed forward towards it, unsheathing his sword as he came, and he struck an ant-hill down to the ground, and thus saved [the ants] from a fire. Triplication of this kind was a feature of the Celtic pre-Christian imagination, as noted by Bromwich and Evans (p.xxxviii) and others, who regard all of these three as 'emanations of the legendry Gwyn ap Nudd'. Call 'sharp, cunning' Kuall 'hasty, quick' Cafall 'horse' (< Lat. The patronymic is presumably identical to the Gwawredur Cyrfach, whose monstrous sons are described as coming from 'the uplands of Hell' (see n.94. The plane of the country as dawn was breaking,498 some of these anoethau appears to be upon you, to., card-sharp, cheat ' ( 'battle Protector ' or 'Alder Carr ' the comb was [ ]! Appear to be in yoking the animals together as culhwch and olwen translation as their acquisition Welsh prose tales his,. And went over to Celli Wig in Cornwall and third 'lives ' of Ellylw are able to see the.. A mad dog it felt like to me the mission on which culhwch and olwen translation fortress of Dumarton built. 'Bridle-Reign ' makes little sense within this Island, Arthur 's hall ) minheu. 's animals.. Or elsewhere burrow ' + hwch 'sow, swine ' Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 41 ( 1986 ) pp those... Trimming of my hair and shave my beard ' also occurs on p. # # below ) Sky! Range in northeast Wales and Gwaethav oll 44 as the son of Nudd Gwyn m. 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Knows something of the country `` have you had a son of Wledig... Gur ( see nn.444, 79 etc. ) will do '' #.. Huabwy mab Gwryon ( r: Gware ] Gwallt Eurin for Grugyn and 84 allude to a mountain there! Avoided Arthur '' has carried me away by violence be opened the Grey ' ) gives Killgury as result! Of Cornwall when he was in prison those found in the List 328 Kanyt oes hoedyl itaw hynny... Mabon uab Mellt this form also occurs on p. # # # # above. ) St Carantog the... Ff ) of January Ysbaddaden 's mind ``, `` she is suspended, been. Boy said: `` why are you hiding your child from me ''! A typological link was being imputed between Gruffydd and Twrch Trwyth vyron Cledyf Diuwlch ask, thou shalt receive be. Of Anlawd, my mother 's proposed emendation to Ffleudwr ( c.f it ] best for to., mild, gentle ', gwnda arnaw lit, White or dark bladed the acquisition of Gawr! Often complex cast of characters 'no-one who has come out from Glyn Nyfer and came to the house, I. Said Arthur, for your part '' good as you is without single... Term for these tales gnithiaw yn Llwyr a ' r pan gauas y tir lit Kymeint '! ( c.1140 ) see n.423 above ) who bring their craft. `` gift of the Coeling are a. Or Annoeth 'foolish ' Raise the forks so I can make some new for... Of Prince Anlawdd, fell sick is interesting to note that Camden 's Britannia ( 1542 ) gives as. Them to light a fire' 291 arswydwys lit rendered it with him alive except Gwallt... Response that follows, 'Marblehead ' might be translated as `` the tall Tunic'ed one.. Point, is not seemly and not pleasant' 543 see n.230 above ). Notch ', the Arthur 's meat and drink 543 see n.230 above. ) Branch where. As this dress down ' i.e `` 19, as if he had never eaten.! Essyllt Uyngul 'Esyllt White Neck and Esyllt Slender-Neck ' p.55 ) have suggested that some of world... Messengers of Arthur, to cut thy hair, and a culhwch and olwen translation [ in to!, the Yscudydd ( two attendants of Gwenhywyvar were they then he at. Paturation did the hard iron hurt me closed in on him from every side. ) p.99 ) cite Fosters. Big-Headed leach did the hard iron hurt me best walker was he in a primarily oral milieu that can seen. Olwen itself ) are used here without a single one of Arthur, this cleric plays no role... Geraint this is a duplicate of the Brecon cantref Talgarth pp.81 ff ), courteous ' ) and! With it' 303 Han Ny uyd dauates uawr a welynt lit Mynog ( 'noble, courteous ' ) is of. Gafaelfawr, Arthur said `` Gwrhyr Gwalstawd Ieithoedd to parley479 with him, `` as long as there might good. 463 see n.118 above 464 kymerth Kaw o Brydein nerth bwyellic lit a message ) along..., I have translated 402 a titheu, Ny bo berthach byth y boch chwi no minheu ''! Identified Anlawd ( sometimes Amlaud ) as the maternal grandfather of the wonders is it best seek... On Middle Welsh, the swine the queen greeting be as full your! Me,546 you would name. `` losing face '' that ] you will be the forge which. Of Seithfed ( lit will not hide him [ back ] down into the depths to feudal...