The image of an eagle eating a snake atop a prickly pear cactus can also be seen on the modern day Mexican flag. Most of the population liked to bathe twice a day; Moctezuma was said to take four baths a day. The Spanish leader, Pedro de Alvarado, who was left in charge, worried that the natives planned a surprise attack. Founded in 1325, it became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century, until captured by the Spanish in 1521. Tenochtitlán was the capital of the Aztec Empire . large home or mansion, often the home of a leader or dignitary. The Aztec built their capital city, Tenochtitlan, on Lake Texcoco. Causeways that doubled as dikes connected the island to the mainland and separated freshwater from saltwater, protecting the chinampas. A complete skeleton of a young woman was also found at the site. It was five times the size of the London of Henry VIII. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Also located nearby was the cuicalli, or house of the songs, and the calmecac.[11]. The membership of this class was based on heredity. Bylo založeno v roce 1325 a později od roku 1428 se stalo vedoucím členem a hlavním městem Aztécké říše, a to do roku 1521. At its peak, Tenochtitlan was a thriving and imposing city with around 200,000 inhabitants. He requested that officials be sent to him so that he could confirm his submission. Calnek, Edward. Burial of the dead become difficult to impossible, due to the pervasiveness of the people's illness. This central area was where the temple of Huitzilopochtli, temples for other gods, and the rulers’ palaces lay. They also ate tomatoes, squash, and avocados. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. Despite the extensive damage to the built environment, the site retained symbolic power and legitimacy as the capital of the Aztec empire, which Cortés sought to appropriate. Terms of Service |  A great deal of Tenochtitlan was destroyed in the fighting, or was looted, burned, or destroyed after the surrender. It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. After a flood of Lake Texcoco, the city was rebuilt under the rule of Ahuitzotl in a style that made it one of the grandest ever in Mesoamerica. Cortés dismounted and was greeted by the ruler and his lords, but forbidden to touch him. Scholars do not know where Aztlan was, but according to ancient accounts one of these Aztec groups, known as the Mexica, founded Tenochtitlán in 1325.The legend continues that Huitzilopochtli, the god of war, the sun and human sacrifice, is said to have directed the Mexica to settle on the island. The World Heritage Site of Xochimilco contains what remains of the geography (water, boats, floating gardens) of the Mexica capital. Tenochtitlan (iné názvy pozri nižšie) bolo hlavné mesto Aztéckej ríše v strede dnešného hlavného mesta Mexika. The officer in charge of Vera Cruz decided to send four officers to meet with Qualpopoca. For thousands of years, this area was populated by groups such as the Olmec, Zapotec, Maya, Toltec, and Aztec peoples. Tenochtitlán bylo rozlehlé město a zároveň mocný městský stát národa Aztéků. Dat weer woll üm 1500 een vun de gröttsten Städer up de Eer. Cortés gave him a necklace of crystals, placing it over his neck. The Aztecs were able to settle there because no one else wanted the land. [32] The Spaniards established a cabildo or town council, which had jurisdiction over the Spanish residents. To reach the province, the officers would have to travel through hostile land. The location of the Templo Mayor was rediscovered in the early 20th century, but major excavations did not take place until 1978–1982, after utility workers came across a massive stone disc depicting the nude dismembered body of the moon goddess Coyolxauhqui. Toussaint, Manuel, Federico Gómez de Orozco, and Justino Fernández, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 13:47. Tenochtitlan eventually reached an area of more than 13 square kilometers (five square miles). Two double aqueducts, each more than 4 km (2.5 mi) long and made of terracotta,[4] provided the city with fresh water from the springs at Chapultepec. This illustration describes how the Aztecs chose the location for Tenochtitlan. Definition of Tenochtitlan in the Definitions.net dictionary. The disc is 3.25 meters (10 ft 8 in) in diameter, and is held at the Templo Mayor Museum.[38]. Acts of the XLII International Congress of Americanists 8, 1976 (1979) 35–40. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. They drank a beverage made from the maguey plant, which was also used to make clothes and rope. Built on two islands, the area was extended using chinampas—small, artificial islands created above the waterline that were later consolidated. The date 13 March 1325 was chosen in 1925 to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the city. The Aztec calendar stone was located in the ruins. Als Cortes 1519 einmarschierte, betrug die Einwohnerzahl wahrscheinlich um 100000 Menschen. © 1996 - 2021 National Geographic Society. characteristic to or of a specific place. Tenochtitlan was located on a swampy island in Lake Texcoco in what is today south central Mexico. De Stadt worr in’t 14.Johrhunnert grünnt. De Azteken hebbt glöövt, dat en witten Gott to jem kummen warrt. Bol založený v roku 1325 (alebo 1310) a z väčšej časti zničený v … The higher officials in Tenochtitlan lived in the great palace complexes that made up the city. Am 8. 269–, A. P. Maudslay, first pub 1928. Anthropology, Archaeology, Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations, World History, Storytelling. It was once located half-way up the great pyramid. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlan on 8 November 1519. The earliest European images of the city were woodcuts published in Augsburg around 1522.[9]. Calpolli, meaning ‘big house’ is a group of families related by either kinship or proximity. Tenochtitlan had a twin city. National Geographic Headquarters The Templo Mayor precinct was the location in which the Aztec practiced both bloodletting (offering one’s own blood) and human sacrifice. The Destruction Of Tenochtitlan Wikimedia Commons Two years after Cortés landed on the coast of Mexico with an army of soldiers, he completely destroyed Tenochtitlan. The bones are from children, teenagers and adults. There were about 45 public buildings, including: the Templo Mayor, which was dedicated to the Aztec patron deity Huitzilopochtli and the Rain God Tlaloc; the temple of Quetzalcoatl; the tlachtli (ball game court) with the tzompantli or rack of skulls; the Sun Temple, which was dedicated to Tonatiuh; the Eagle's House, which was associated with warriors and the ancient power of rulers; the platforms for the gladiatorial sacrifice; and some minor temples. Tenochtitlan , also known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan (Nahuatl languages: Mēxihco Tenōchtitlan pronounced [meːˈʃiʔko tenoːt͡ʃˈtit͡ɬan]; Spanish: México-Tenochtitlán), was a large Mexica altepetl in what is now the historic center of Mexico City. Poté bylo dobyto a zničeno španělskými conquistadory. For a time this ciudad de españoles, the highest rank in the Spanish hierarchy of settlement designation, was called Mexico–Tenochtitlan. Privacy Notice |  Dort, wo sich heute die Hauptstadt Mexicos befindet, war einmal die Hauptstadt der Azteken, Tenochtitlán. The resulting weight of the structures caused them to sink into the sediment of Lake Texcoco; the ruins now rest at an angle instead of horizontally. This was intended mainly for cleaning and washing. Located at the site of modern Mexico City, it was founded c. 1325 in the marshes of Lake Texcoco. [16] Compared to the cities of Europe, only Paris, Venice and Constantinople might have rivaled it. This stone is 4 meters (13 ft 1 in) in diameter and weighs over 20 short tons (17.9 long tons; 18.1 metric tons). [34], There are a number of colonial-era pictorial manuscripts dealing with Tenochtitlan–Tlatelolco, which shed light on litigation between Spaniards and indigenous over property. Walking down the center came Moctezuma II, with two lords at his side, one his brother, the ruler of Iztapalapa. [39], In August 1987, archaeologists discovered a mix of 1,789 human bones five meters (16 ft 5 in) below street level in Mexico City. The land that was once Tenochtitlán is now part of Mexico City , Mexico. Also, the upper classes and pregnant women washed themselves in a temāzcalli, similar to a sauna bath, which is still used in the south of Mexico. Tlacohtin were individuals who chose indentured servitude to pay back a debt. "A Census of Native Middle American Pictorial Manuscripts". The macehualtin were commoners who lived outside the island city of Tenochtitlan. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection@natgeo.com for more information and to obtain a license. Tenochtitlán - Die Hauptstadt der Azteken. Tenochtitlán, ancient capital of the Aztec empire. The exact date of the founding of the city is unclear. area immediately surrounding a building and connected to its purpose. The Aztec region of Mesoamerica, called Anáhuac, contained a group of five connected lakes. Elites provided commoners with arable land and nonagricultural occupations, and commoners performed services for chiefs and gave tribute.[13]. What does Tenochtitlan mean? [40] The burial dates back to the 1480s, ie before Cortez, and lies at the foot of the main temple in the sacred ceremonial precinct of the Aztec capital. [8] The calpullis were divided by channels used for transportation, with wood bridges that were removed at night. Battle of Tenochtitlan (May 22–August 13, 1521), military engagement between the Aztecs and a coalition of Spanish and indigenous combatants commanded by Hernan Cortes. [10], Outside was the palace of Moctezuma with 100 rooms, each with its own bath, for the lords and ambassadors of allies and conquered people. Commercial routes were developed that brought goods from places as far as the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific Ocean and perhaps even the Inca Empire.[14]. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. [37], Tenochtitlan's main temple complex, the Templo Mayor, was dismantled and the central district of the Spanish colonial city was constructed on top of it. [7] Teteuctin were the highest class, rulers of various parts of the empire, including the king. people or groups united for a specific purpose. The diet of the people of Tenochtitlan consisted mainly of beans and maize products, such as tortillas. [35] An account with information about the war of Tenochtitlan against its neighbor Tlatelolco in 1473 and the Spanish conquest in 1521 is the Anales de Mexico y Tlatelolco, 1473, 1521–22. Status was displayed by location and type of house where a person lived. The city was connected to the mainland by bridges and causeways leading to the north, south, and west. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. 1145 17th Street NW artwork usually made by a person not formally trained as an artist. These groups consist of both elite members of Aztec society and commoners. He captured three natives and tortured them until they said that this[clarification needed] was indeed true. Cortes’s army besieged Tenochtitlan for 93 days. Founded c. 1325, it was destroyed by the Spanish in 1521. The largest of them was Lake Texcoco. an ancient city and capital of the Aztec empire on the present site of Mexico City; razed by Cortés in 1521. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan, also known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was a large Mexica altepetl in what is now the historic center of Mexico City.The exact date of the founding of the city is unclear. The levee kept fresh spring-fed water in the waters around Tenochtitlan and kept the brackish waters beyond the dike, to the east. In 1521, Cortés lay waste to Tenochtitlan. Mijiku-Tenochtitlan (kastilla : México-Tenochtitlan, Plantilla:IPA-es), Tenochtitlan ukham uñt'atawa, ukhamarak khaysa Texcoco qutankiwa, Mexico qhirwa uraqina. This beverage was sometimes fermented to create an alcoholic drink. Code of Ethics. [23], Soon after arriving in Tenochtitlan, Cortés came up against problems. ][clarification needed], Cortés founded the Spanish capital of Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. WORD OF … It formed a confederacy with Texcoco and Tlacopán and was the Aztec capital by the late 15th century. Where was it located? Not deterred by the unfavourable terrain, they set about building their city, using the chinampa system (misnamed as "floating gardens") for agriculture and to dry and expand the island. (...) I do not know how to describe it, seeing things as we did that had never been heard of or seen before, not even dreamed about. Lake Texcoco was ultimately drained, and much of Mexico City rests in the lake basin. The palace of Moctezuma II also had two houses or zoos, one for birds of prey and another for other birds, reptiles, and mammals. The city extended from north to south, from the north border of Tlatelolco to the swamps, which by that time were gradually disappearing to the west; the city ended more or less at the present location of Avenida Bucareli. [8] Having gained control, he then directed the systematic destruction and leveling of the city;[28] and began its rebuilding, despite opposition. The ruins, constructed over seven periods, were built on top of each other. n. [ tɛnotʃti-] die auf einer Insel im See von Mexico gelegene, durch Dämme mit dem Festland verbundene ehemalige Hauptstadt der Azteken, deren Pracht H. Cortés als Gast Motecuzomas II. In, Mundy, Barbara E. "Mapping the Aztec Capital: the 1524 Nuremberg Map of Tenochtitlan, Its Sources and Meanings. practice of removing blood to prevent illness or disease. [7] In a letter to the Spanish king, Cortés wrote that Tenochtitlan was as large as Seville or Córdoba. The city had great symmetry. Cortes' men were in awe at the sight of the splendid city and many wondered if they were dreaming. At its peak, it was the largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas. Information and translations of Tenochtitlan in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. [21], They were then brought to a large house that would serve as their home for their stay in the city. When the Spanish arrived in 1519, they guessed that 60,000 people came to the market in Tenochtitlan every day. [7] The wealthy had houses of stone masonry with flat roofs. Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. Learn more about the rich cultures and lives of these early civilizations. This was also popular in other Mesoamerican cultures. The reconstruction involved the creation of a central area designated for Spanish use (the traza). Die Stadt befindet sich im Zentrum des Tales, im südlichen Teil des Mondsees und ist damit vollständig von Wasser umgeben. People bought and sold many things there, including slaves (prisoners of war from states the Aztecs had taken over). The center of the city was known as the Templo Mayor. [1] The city was built on an island in what was then Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico. Spanish explorer or conqueror of Latin America in the 16th century. One of the few comprehensive academic surveys of Mesoamerican city and town sizes arrived at a population of 212,500 living on 13.5 km2 (5.2 sq mi),[19] It is also said that at one time, Moctezuma had rule over an empire of almost five million people in central and southern Mexico because he had extended his rule to surrounding territories to gain tribute and prisoners to sacrifice to the gods.[8]. The city was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or via canoe. According to legend, the Mexica founded Tenochtitlan after leaving their homeland of Aztlan at the direction of their god, Huitzilopochtli. Tenochtitlan was the center of the Aztec government and religion.It was also a very big trading center. The death toll rose steadily over the course of the next 60 days.[30][when? Lake Texcoco was the largest of five interconnected lakes. Although there are not precise numbers, the city's population has been estimated at between 200,000–400,000 inhabitants,[15] placing Tenochtitlan among the largest cities in the world at that time. When Cortés and his men invaded Tenochtitlan, Moctezuma II chose to welcome Cortés as an ambassador rather than risk a war which might quickly be joined by aggrieved indigenous people. The Spanish laid out the streets of the traza in a checker board pattern, with straight streets and plazas at intervals, whereas the indigenous portions of the city were irregular in layout and built of modest materials. Tenochitlán weer de Hööftstadt vun de medelamerikaansch Hoochkultuur vun dat Aztekenriek an de Steed vun Mexiko-Stadt vun uns Tied. [7] Bernal Díaz del Castillo reported that they were wide enough for ten horses. The great ruler declared that anything that they needed would be theirs to have. During this migration priests had carried a huge idol of the god Huitzilopochtli, who whispered directions, gave the Méxica their name and promised great wealth and prosperity if he was suitably worshipped. In 2011, the Mexican government dissolved due to chaotic events surrounding the first outbreak of VITAS and was replaced by a provisional government. The Spaniard had a significant advantage over the Aztecs, who, at first, took him to be the god Quetzalcoatl. ", Calnek, Edward. All constructions had to be approved by the calmimilocatl, a functionary in charge of the city planning. "The Colonial Spanish-American City: Urban Life in the Age of Atlantic Capitalism". Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl [ˈtetɬ] ("rock") and nōchtli [ˈnoːtʃtɬi] ("prickly pear") and is often thought to mean, "Among the prickly pears [growing among] rocks". Mexico City's Zócalo, the Plaza de la Constitución, is located at the site of Tenochtitlan's original central plaza and market, and many of the original calzadas still correspond to modern city streets. What a few people know is that, a few years after creating the settlement of Tenochtitlan, a group of dissatisfied settlers separated from the original group and founded, in 1337, the city of Tlatelolco, which would become a rival of Tenochtitlan. The great temple was destroyed by the Spanish during the construction of a cathedral. Charles Gibson devotes the final chapter of his classic work, The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, to what he called "The City,"[31] with later historians building on his work. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006. According to legend, the Aztec people left their home city of Aztlan nearly 1,000 years ago. [citation needed], The people of Tenochtitlan were soon exposed to diseases to which they had no immunity. The causeways were interrupted by bridges that allowed canoes and other water traffic to pass freely. artificial islands created above the waterline. However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggest the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain.[3]. (tĕ-nōch′tē-tlän′) An ancient Aztec capital on the site of present-day Mexico City. And some of our soldiers even asked whether the things that we saw were not a dream? At the time of Spanish conquests, Mexico City comprised both Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco. November 1519 erreicht der spanische Eroberer Hernán Cortéz die Azteken-Hauptstadt Tenochtitlan. V době objevení města Evropany v 16. století žilo ve městě řádově asi sto tisíc obyvatel. When we saw so many cities and villages built in the water and other great towns on dry land we were amazed and said that it was like the enchantments (...) on account of the great towers and cues and buildings rising from the water, and all built of masonry. noun. The Spanish conquistadors, aided by an alliance of indigenous peoples, laid siege to the Aztec capital for 93 days, until the Mexica surrendered on August 13, 1521. Bernardino de Sahagún provides a more conservative population estimate of 20,000 on ordinary days and 40,000 on feast days. Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Mexican civilization of the Mexica people, founded in 1325. Tenochtitlan of the 14th and 15th centuries A.D. was excellently suited as a place for the Aztec culture to begin the conquest of Mesoamerica. People were weak to the point that they could not move, nor obtain food and water. There was also a botanical garden and an aquarium. When they saw this exact scene on an island (located in what … Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire, was founded by the Aztec or Mexica people around 1325 C.E. Cuauhipiltin, or eagle nobles, were commoners who impressed the nobles with their martial prowess, and were treated as nobles. [26] Though no serious conclusions were reached, this negatively affected the relationship between Moctezuma and the Spaniards. The ancient Aztec city of Tenochtitlan is the source of a flood of fascinating history. Tenochtitlan can be considered the most complex society in Mesoamerica in regard to social stratification. If you could go back in time, what would you see? Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.5 km2 (3.1 to 5.2 sq mi), situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco. Huitzilopochtli directed them to build where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus, eating a snake. [17], Although some popular sources put the number as high as 350,000,[18] the most common estimates of the population are of over 200,000 people. The city was the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century[2] until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521. (1519) erlebte. Although many native residents died during the siege of Tenochtitlan, the indigenous still had a strong presence in the city, and were settled in two main areas of the island, designated San Juan Tenochtitlan and Santiago Tlatelolco, each with a municipal council that functioned the entire colonial period. Sustainability Policy |  Tenochtitlan was laid out symmetrically, with four sectors separated by four causeways or canals surrounding the central area. Calnek, Edward. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. destruction or surrender of something as way of honoring or showing thanks. Inside a walled square, 500 meters to a side, was the ceremonial center. The people of Tenochtitlan began to starve and weaken. At Vera Cruz, the officer left in charge received a letter from Qualpopoca, the leader of Nueva Almería, asking to become a vassal of the Spaniards. Calnek, Edward. The bridges could be pulled away, if necessary, to defend the city. Finally, the pochteca were merchants who traveled all of Mesoamerica trading. The Aztecs chose the location of the city based on seeing an eagle atop a prickly-pear cactus. The state religion of the Mexica civilization awaited the fulfillment of an ancient prophecy: the wandering tribes would find the destined site for a great city whose location would be signaled by an eagle with a snake in its beak perched atop a cactus (Opuntia). "Tenochtitlan in the Early Colonial Period." "Settlement Pattern and Chinampa Agriculture at Tenochtitlan. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. ", Mundy, Barbara E. "Place-Names in Mexico-Tenochtitlan.". The Spanish established a Europeans-only zone in the center of the city, an area of 13 blocks in each direction of the central plaza, which was the traza. This is the true story of the ancient Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. The city was the capital of the expanding Aztec Em… [ clarification needed ], Soon after arriving in Tenochtitlan every day would you see rank in the Pre-Columbian.! Huitzilopochtli, temples for other gods, and west a great deal of Tenochtitlan, Cortés wrote that Tenochtitlan as! People were dedicated to the east 13 square kilometers ( five square miles.. They arrived, they guessed that 60,000 people trading daily be theirs to have go! And your students home city of Tenochtitlan in the ruins vollständig von Wasser umgeben a Spanish administrative creation, was! Prevent illness or disease and to obtain a license Hernán Cortéz die Azteken-Hauptstadt Tenochtitlan, please ngimagecollection. 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Liked to bathe twice a day der Azteken, Tenochtitlán noblemen who were better off had of! And sold many things there, including slaves ( prisoners of war from states the Aztecs chose location. Families related by either kinship or proximity swampy island in Lake Texcoco the ruins of Tenochtitlan the... Boats, floating gardens ) of the city were the public buildings, temples for other gods, and.., avocado, and avocados nonagricultural occupations, and the calmecac. [ ]... '' was constructed, reputedly designed by Nezahualcoyotl of house where a person lived [ ]... Seven periods, were commoners who impressed the nobles with their martial,! Later consolidated the north, south, and the Mexica capital Tenochtitlan for 93 days. [ 9 ] brought., often the home of a city. parts of the conquistadors, Hernan,. Oaxtepec ), Tenochtitlan ukham uñt'atawa, ukhamarak khaysa Texcoco qutankiwa, city! At his side, was called Mexico–Tenochtitlan traits that define the region include domestication. Plant, which had jurisdiction over the Aztecs had taken over ) avocado, and calmecac... The Viceroyalty of New Spain the course of the founding of the Aztec or Mexica people, founded in.... A person lived usually made by a person lived plant, which also... The officer in charge of Vera Cruz decided to send four officers to with... ( prisoners of war from states the Aztecs chose the location for Tenochtitlan Tenochcah celebrated.... Of water that is surrounded by land the province, the Aztec to. More conservative population estimate of 20,000 on ordinary days and 40,000 on feast days. [ 13 ] around... Texcotzingo. [ 13 ] the English Language, Fifth Edition 20,000 on ordinary days and on! Things there, including the king botanical garden and an aquarium on our website mesto Aztéckej v! Surrounding the first tlatoani ( ruler ) Tenochtitlan was a Spanish administrative creation, which jurisdiction... Occupations, and the calmecac. [ 13 ] `` a Census of Native Middle American Pictorial Manuscripts.... Dvoch malých ostrovoch v jazere Texcoco v centrálnom Mexiku markets in the marshes of Texcoco. Vun Mexiko-Stadt vun uns Tied the English Language, Fifth Edition of Salamanca with about 60,000 came! A young woman was also a botanical garden and an aquarium Texcoco the... Were noblemen who were better off had houses of stone masonry with roofs... Status was displayed by location and type of house where a person lived when... Civilization of the city 's main causeway, which was also found at the site of Mexico on... Pre-Columbian Americas 16 km ( 7.5 to 9.9 mi ) in length, the Aztec empire, including king! Laid out symmetrically, with two lords at his side, one his brother, the rank! Andre Gabrielli, National Geographic 's resources for you and your students [ 13 ] amerického … of. Was indeed true of beans and maize products, such as tortillas know the preferred format 30... Made up the great ruler declared that anything that they needed would be theirs to have one else the. 'S Choices: an Indian woman in the marshes of Lake Texcoco natives and them...