As you might imagine, only body waves can give us any information about the deep interior of the Earth. Surface waves _____. 2001). /Trans << /S /R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF ] /BBox [0 0 16 16] Seismographs record the amplitude and frequency of seismic waves and yield information about the Earth and its subsurface structure. (2) Ground strains caused by body and surface waves have been analyzed for original data and its separated body and surface waves. /ProcSet [ /PDF ] endobj <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 13 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> This generally causes the worst damage because the wave motion rocks the foundations of manmade structures. The first type of body wave is called the primary wave or pressure wave, and is commonly referred to as P-waves. /BBox [0 0 8 8] /Resources 49 0 R Because the volumes explored by surface and body waves are signi cantly di erent, the knowledge of Surface waves on the Seismogram Surface waves are the largest amplitude signal on the wave train Surfaces arrive after the P and S waves, because they travel along the surface layers of the Earth where velocities are lower. /Subtype /Form <>>> From the point of view of the spatial concentration of energy, waves can be divided into body waves and surface waves. 2 0 obj x��XYo7~ׯ���,�o � Ҥ�\E�A�����N���~C�r�d iz ��%=3��"9��L�#� /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] The rest of the energy, which is most of the energy, is radiated from the focus of the earthquake in the form of seismic waves. Much of the motivation for joint inversion derives from two factors. %PDF-1.5 the surface of the Earth). @QW�N�;:r��g�w���V��K#�i�Z��K,z��K쌗��Y�Vr���ܹ��%�$��آ��>�w�:L����fm�M�2��w����r�Gn����8a��jZ'N��&�m��1X��l����S���\��l�H��~���ZR?T� �Y�a 17 0 obj << /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 2 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /Coords [0 0.0 0 272.12549] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /C0 [1 1 1] /C1 [0.75 0.5 0.25] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [] /Encode [0 1 ] >> /Extend [false false] >> >> /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the earth. When an earthquake occurs, some of the energy it releases is turned into heat within the earth. /Resources 47 0 R <> a. travel more rapidly than body waves b. produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes c. are the first waves initially produced in an earthquake d. are the first waves to arrive at a seismograph station after an earthquake ____ 65. endobj Types. /FormType 1 >> endobj Seismic waves fall into two general categories: body waves (P-waves and S-waves), which travel through the interior of the earth, and surface waves, which travel only at the earth’s … • Surface waves propagate at a speed lower than body waves and are recorded after the P and S waves. /Subtype /Form <> >> Real-time analysis of earthquakes can be At the same time viewer can watch waves propagating through a cross-sectional view of the earth. /Filter /FlateDecode 9 0 obj << Body waves are of two types: Primary waves (also called P-waves, or pressure waves) and Secondary waves (S-waves, or shear waves). Those waves that are the most destructive are the surface waves which generally have the strongest vibration. stream x���P(�� ��endstream endobj /Filter /FlateDecode Surface waves usually have larger amplitudes and longer wavelengths than body waves, and they travel more slowly than body waves do. Thereby, waves do appear in various forms and differ in their characteristics. x� endstream Body waves are of two types: compressional or primary (P) waves and shear or secondary (S) waves. 10 0 obj << The rupture initiated slowly at a depth of 23 km. Surfaces wave energy (amplitudes) decay with distance as 1 / r Body wave energy decays as 1 / r2 So at a given distance, which will have more energy ? Body waves Introduction P- and S-waves are referred to as body waves because they are transmitted through the volume (or body) of the material, as apposed to travelling along the surface. x��}In.Kvޜ�� {:ľ?�v��XǸ��B�n_�Y�\��nl�5x��0͌�t���tH�+��p�.,�V�djC���[��]�O��W��CV�u� /Contents 19 0 R BODY WAVES Traveling through the interior of the earth, body waves arrive before the surface waves emitted by an earthquake. >> 47 0 obj << x���P(�� ��endstream The advantage of this method over others using body waves is that it is very rapid and does not require manual intervention, so that it can be made into an automatic process suitable for real-time purposes. Free Surface Water Waves z x y y=h(x,y,t) or F(x,y,z,t) = 0 B(x,y,z,t) = 0 Figure 1. Surface Waves. Both types of body waves are non-dispersive (in purely elastic media). endobj >> endobj endobj The solution was updated twice in three days. • There are two types of surface waves: Rayleigh and Love waves. /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 3 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /Coords [3.99998 3.99998 0.0 3.99998 3.99998 3.99998] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.875 0.75 0.625] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [] /Encode [0 1 ] >> /Extend [true false] >> >> Introduction. • Surface waves are larger in amplitude and longer in duration than body waves. Our preferred model, which based on the MDC fault plane, local JMA hypocenter and calibrated alignments of body and surface waves, revealed a complex rupture process. /BBox [0 0 362.8347 272.1261] 3 0 obj /Subtype /Form 14 0 obj << /Matrix [1.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 1.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000] >> endobj x��ZYo�F~7����!�}� ��#�,6X����b��Lˊe�#ʞ��ߪ�"%e`�0�}TWW}�U5����w߽���/������"I��췫���w�'�������sU&�w�g,)��%��E!�JTy%��G���U�,��"Y�Sm�~>?��~�owIV�?n�L��U��t�?.����}�:����\����#,�K��k�J��}N��o����Il����T��e���W�D�A��lV��0O����l&��_���'>�S2�����2Uc��o��`q��]�DzOg�Hu��������� ��A��@}�4j�U���'�v�f"}6��n�Q�7q�`]�B�n�� Surface waves are the slowest moving of all waves, so the most intense shaking usually comes at the end of an earthquake. /ProcSet [ /PDF ] formulation used for body waves, except that the surface wave ‘‘ray’’ has a sensitivity that is very wide in depth (Figure 1). 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