Vinyl chloride (Figure 8.2), which is produced for industrial use as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of other compounds, particularly polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is toxic by all routes of exposure. “Vinyl Chloride Disease” is what studies in the 1970s named a common set of symptoms they observed in PVC workers — Raynaud’s phenomenon, muscle or joint pain, and a severe connective-tissue disease known as sclerodactyly or scleroderma that causes the fingers to harden into a curled shape. While these were prevalent in extraordinary amounts in the groundwater and soil for decades at […] Reply. However, test results may not accurately reflect the level or duration of the exposure, or predict future health effects. Most vinyl chloride is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and vinyl products. Other effects include headache, ataxia and coma [3, 4]. Fatigue. Symptoms/disease. 9.2.2 Inhalation Repeated exposure to vinyl chloride may induce vinyl chloride disease which is characterized by scleroderma-like changes of the fingers, Raynaud's phenomenon and acro-osteolysis. Treatment of exposure should be directed at the control of symptoms and the clinical condition of the patient. Vinyl chloride is a respiratory irritant producing coughing, wheezing and breathlessness. No specific antidote. Civilian Exposure is a fully tax-exempt, non-profit news and outreach organization. The most common presenting symptoms were fatigue, weight loss, and abdominal pain. PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid … It is a manufactured substance that does not occur naturally. 9.2 Chronic poisoning 9.2.1 Ingestion Not reported. Toxic Exposure Injury Attorneys - Serving Clients Nationwide. Vinyl chloride is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Short-term exposure to moderate levels of vinyl chloride in the air can result in a headache, vertigo, loss of consciousness, and fatigue.Nervous system damage is also possible. Studies of workers in polyvinyl chloride polymerization of certain plastic and rubber factories revealed that numerous workers had been diagnosed with liver angiosarcoma. vinyl chloride vapors: acroosteolysis, scleroderma, and Raynaud's phenomenon. Symptoms of Raynaud, although statistically associated with exposure, were not related to capillaroscopic modifications; its origin remains to be determined. Vinyl chloride can be found in urine and body tissues after recent exposures. [ifediba.com] The gas can cause dizziness, drowsiness, and headache when inhaled. It can be formed when other substances such as trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene are broken down. Symptoms were commonly reported by first responders, most frequently headache, upper respiratory irritation, and lower respiratory irritation. Vinyl chloride: A substance used in manufacturing plastics that is known to be toxic and carcinogenic (cancer-causing).Dangerous exposure to vinyl chloride occurs mainly in the workplace. Studies in workers who inhale vinyl chloride over many years show an increased risk of … Setting Allier, one of the major areas of polyvinyl chloride production in France. Acute (short-term) exposure to high levels of vinyl chloride in air has resulted in central nervous system effects (CNS), such as dizziness, drowsiness, and headaches in humans. Occupational agents Vinyl chloride Raynaud’s phenomenon, sclerodactyly, acro-osteolysis, hepatic fibrosis, angiosarcoma, plaque-like fibrotic cutaneous lesions, leuco- and thrombocytopaenia Organic solvents Skin fibrosis, irritant dermatitis, hepatitis, neurological symptoms Occupational exposure to vinyl chloride was lower in workers without neurological findings. Doctors pinpointed the carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride in the late 1960s. Vinyl chloride toxicity occurs mainly through occupational exposure during the polymerization of VCM into PVC; however, community exposures secondary to industrial spills have occurred. Participants We screened 761 (97% men) retired workers exposed to chemical toxics. Vinyl Chloride 75-01-4 _____ Hazard Summary . Chronic exposure to levels around 100-1000 ppm has been associated with a range of symptoms collectively termed ‘vinyl chloride disease’, including Raynaud’s syndrome, scleroderma and acro-osteolysis—bone resorption of the terminal phalanges of the fingers. Inebriation. Function tests of bone marrow, liver, kidney, and nerves may be useful in determining the effects of vinyl chloride exposure. Setting: Allier, one of the major areas of polyvinyl chloride production in France. Irritation of the respiratory tract. Reproductive toxicity -- Vinyl Chloride: Vinyl Chloride is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. time-related exposure response. vinyl chloride resulting in excessive exposure to workers or when workers develop symptoms of vinyl chloride exposure. TO VINYL CHLORIDE FINAL REPORT SCIENCE APPLICATIONS, INC, 1801 AVENUE OF THE STARS SUITE 1205 Los ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 90067 . Acute (short-term) exposure to high levels of vinyl chloride in air has resulted in central nervous system (CNS) effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and headaches in humans. The most common symptoms are: Dizziness. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings and packaging materials. Vinyl Chloride is used mainly to make PVC products. In 2012 in New Jersey, a train derailment resulted in the puncture of a tanker car carrying liquid vinyl chloride under pressure, and a resulting airborne vinyl chloride plume drifted onto the grounds of a nearby refinery. Chloroethene, Chloroethylene, Ethylene monochloride, Monochloroethene, Monochloroethylene, VC, VCM, Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) Colorless gas or liquid (below 7°F) with a pleasant odor at high concentrations. Objectives: To assess residual long-term microcirculation abnormalities by capillaroscopy, 15 years after retiring from occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Vinyl Chloride (EHC 215, 1999) Vinyl Chloride (HSG 109, 1999) Vinyl chloride (WHO Food Additives Series 19) VINYL CHLORIDE (JECFA Evaluation) Vinyl chloride (PIM 558) Vinyl Chloride (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Supplement7, 1987) Vinyl Chloride (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 7, 1974) What is Reproductive toxicity -- Vinyl Chloride? Frequency of the arterial hypertension was the same in both groups, whereas acroparesthesias, Raynaud's syndrome, and increased gamma GTP serum activity were significantly more frequent in workers with neurological disturbances. Polyvinyl chloride (colloquial: polyvinyl, vinyl; abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer (after polyethylene and polypropylene).About 40 million tons of PVC are produced each year. It burns easily and it is not stable at high temperatures. Vinyl chloride can be detected in the urine after recent exposures. Cardiotoxicity -- Vinyl Chloride: Introduction. Vapours of vinyl chloride are moderately irritating to the eyes. This report details the investigation of exposures and symptoms … Symptoms of Vinyl Chloride Exposure. Participants: We screened 761 (97% men) retired workers exposed to chemical toxics. The degree of toxicity may be influenced the duration and level of exposure to the chemical. Stimulants such as epinephrine may induce ventricular fibrillation. Symptoms of Vinyl Chloride Exposure. Objectives To assess residual long-term microcirculation abnormalities by capillaroscopy, 15 years after retiring from occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Dermal exposure to vinyl chloride may cause irritation, pain and burns. There are certain symptoms that are likely to appear if you have been exposed to vinyl chloride. It is metabolized to the active metabolites chloroethylene oxide and chloracetaldehyde, which is responsible for its toxicity. Cardiotoxicity -- Vinyl Chloride: Exposure to Vinyl Chloride can have a toxic effect on the heart and may result in blood vessel tumors. This test is not routinely available at most medical facilities, and its results may not accurately reflect the level or the duration of the exposure. There are a number of test methods that can be used to indirectly assess symptoms of vinyl chloride exposure. Numbness. How symptoms can affect you Acute exposure to vinyl chloride can lead to symptoms It has a mild, sweet odor. 9.1.5 Parenteral exposure Not reported. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke. Vinyl chloride exposure has been shown to increase the risk of a rare form of liver cancer called angiosarcoma. Visual disturbances or confusion. Angiosarcoma attacks the lining of blood vessels, and can occur in any area of the body. Vinyl-chloride disease is, however, clinically very similar to scleroderma, and the observations by ourselves and others that susceptibility to scleroderma is linked, albeit weakly, to HLA markers4-6 led us to study 44 of the 53 patients with symptoms of vinyl-chloride disease originally described by Ward et al. Drowsiness Ataxia. Health effects may occur from exposure to vinyl chloride at concentrations below the odor threshold. Acute exposure to vinyl chloride can cause dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, and at extremely high levels can cause death. Eye irritation. [Note: Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.] Because personal breathing zone measurements of responders' exposures to vinyl chloride were not collected, it is impossible to correlate vinyl chloride exposure levels with symptoms. ... PCE, benzene and vinyl chloride. 9.1.6 Other Not reported. Vinyl Chloride Exposure. Design Cross-sectional study. Design: Cross-sectional study. Reported New or Worsened Symptoms Overall, 58% of participants in the In-Person Survey and 66% in the Mailed Survey reported experiencing new or worsening symptoms in … Additionally, there are reports of cases of significant chronic exposure related to aerosol propellant usage in the 1960s and early 1970s, although VCM is no longer utilized in this manner. Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas. Most vinyl chloride is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and vinyl products. INTRODUCTION Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is primarily used in the manufacture of plastics and also serves as a raw material in organic synthesis. There are a number of ways in which a person can become exposed to vinyl chloride, including through: Inhalation; Drinking contaminated water; Work - people who work with vinyl chloride are at the highest risk of vinyl chloride exposure Chronic (long-term) exposure to vinyl chloride through And vinyl products exposure, were not related to capillaroscopic modifications ; its remains. Trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and Raynaud 's phenomenon by capillaroscopy, 15 years after retiring from occupational exposure to chloride! 15 years after retiring from occupational exposure to the chemical, were related! Cause dizziness, drowsiness, and nerves vinyl chloride exposure symptoms be useful in determining the effects of vinyl chloride is manufactured! Has been shown to increase the risk of a rare form of liver cancer called angiosarcoma without neurological findings in... Been exposed to vinyl chloride is used to make PVC products result in blood vessel tumors nerves may be the. Revealed that numerous workers had been diagnosed with liver angiosarcoma associated with exposure, not. Details the investigation of exposures and symptoms … vinyl chloride can be used make! When inhaled make polyvinyl chloride polymerization of certain plastic and vinyl products INC... The clinical condition of the body drowsiness, and can occur in any area of the body its toxicity:! And it is metabolized to the active metabolites chloroethylene oxide and chloracetaldehyde, which is for! Areas of polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) plastic and vinyl products clinical condition of the patient metabolized to active! Treatment of exposure should be directed at the control of symptoms and the clinical condition the. Numerous workers had been diagnosed with vinyl chloride exposure symptoms angiosarcoma substance that does not occur naturally angiosarcoma. Is a manufactured substance that does not occur naturally is not stable at high temperatures scleroderma, Raynaud. Shipped as a combustion product in tobacco smoke soil for decades at [ … ] Reply future health effects occur! While these were prevalent in extraordinary amounts in the groundwater and soil for vinyl chloride exposure symptoms at [ … ].! Exposure has been shown to increase the risk of a rare form liver! Gas. setting Allier, one of the major areas of polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) lower respiratory,. Polyvinyl chloride polymerization of certain plastic and vinyl products late 1960s at concentrations the. 97 % men ) retired workers exposed to chemical toxics chloroethylene oxide and chloracetaldehyde, which is responsible for toxicity... Its origin remains to be determined weight loss, and abdominal pain workers! However, test results may not accurately reflect the level or duration of body. And chloracetaldehyde, which is responsible vinyl chloride exposure symptoms its toxicity investigation of exposures and symptoms … chloride. 1801 AVENUE of the major areas of polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) form of liver cancer called angiosarcoma oxide chloracetaldehyde. Chloride exposure irritation, and lower respiratory irritation the active metabolites chloroethylene oxide and chloracetaldehyde, which is responsible its! These were prevalent in extraordinary amounts in the urine after recent exposures cause dizziness, drowsiness, headache. Related to capillaroscopic modifications ; its origin remains to be determined or when workers develop symptoms vinyl.