d. charges of heresy against reformers and non-Christian attacks After the Heidelberg Disputation (1518) where Luther described the Theology of the Cross as opposed to the Theology of Glory and the Leipzig Disputation (1519), the faith issues were brought to the attention of other German theologians throughout the Empire. [citation needed]. In 1658 the Polish Brethren were forced to leave the country. Translated by Earl Morse Wilbur. One of the most important religious revolutions in history was the sixteenth century religious revolt known as the Protestant Reformation. As the number of Protestants in France increased, the number of heretics in prisons awaiting trial also grew. The reformation wave swept first the Holy Roman Empire, and then extended beyond it to the rest of the European continent. The Protestant Reformation separated Europe and it affected the power of the church, monarchs, and individual states. Although the German Peasants' War of 1524–1525 began as a tax and anti-corruption protest as reflected in the Twelve Articles, its leader Thomas Müntzer gave it a radical Reformation character. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2018. Disdain and mistrust of the Catholic Church was the major cause for the Protestant Reformation. Higher public spending on schooling and better educational performance of military conscripts. John Knox is regarded as the leader of the Scottish reformation. Long-standing resentment between the German states and the Swiss Confederation led to heated debate over how much Zwingli owed his ideas to Lutheranism. Even though the majority of the nobility were Catholic circa 1700, Protestants remained in these lands and pockets of Protestantism could be found outside the German-speaking lands of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth into the 20th century. In the early 16th century, Spain had a different political and cultural milieu from its Western and Central European neighbors in several respects, which affected the mentality and the reaction of the nation towards the Reformation. Hussites made up the vast majority of the population, forcing the Council of Basel to recognize in 1437 a system of two "religions" for the first time, signing the Compacts of Basel for the kingdom (Catholic and Czech Ultraquism a Hussite movement). Catholicism remained the official state religion, and the fortunes of French Protestants gradually declined over the next century, culminating in Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau (1685), which revoked the Edict of Nantes and made Catholicism the sole legal religion of France, leading some Huguenots to live as Nicodemites. The English Parliament confirmed the King's supremacy over the Church in the Kingdom of England. The movement is called Protestant Reformation or the Protestant Revolt.The Protestant Reformation. A History of Polish Christianity. People like Erasmus, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Luther and John Calvin saw the corruption and tried to stop it. When Henry died he was succeeded by his Protestant son Edward VI, who, through his empowered councilors (with the King being only nine years old at his succession and fifteen at his death) the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland, ordered the destruction of images in churches, and the closing of the chantries. Until the 1960s, historians focused their attention largely on the great leaders and theologians of the 16th century, especially Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. They also objected to ecclesiastical courts. Counter-reformation attempts by the Catholic Church resulted in persecution of Protestants, many of which fled their European origins to make a new life in the New World. Namely, disagreement on the nature of salvation and by extension a number of doctrines including the sale of indulgences and more. [109], Schism within the Western Christian Church in the 16th century, Political situation in Germany about 1560, Religious situation in Germany and Europe about 1560, The New Testament translated by Enzinas, published in, For an example of Reformation history in the Radical Reformation Tradition, see. The quality of the new Catholic schools was so great that Protestants willingly sent their children to these schools. A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History", "Under which conditions does religion affect educational outcomes? An important component of the Catholic Reformation in Poland was education. The king was given possession of all church property, church appointments required royal approval, the clergy were subject to the civil law, and the "pure Word of God" was to be preached in the churches and taught in the schools—effectively granting official sanction to Lutheran ideas. [a] Due to the reform efforts of Hus and other Bohemian reformers, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by the Council of Basel and was officially tolerated in the Crown of Bohemia, although other movements were still subject to persecution, including the Lollards in England and the Waldensians in France and Italian regions. The Protestant Reformation was a major turning point in European church history and caused a variety of political issues. People turned to the Catholic Church for protection and often persecuted and blamed Jews for the plague. Regions that were poor but had great economic potential and bad political institutions were more likely to adopt Protestantism. A State without Stakes: Polish Religious Toleration in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. [78], The following outcomes of the Reformation regarding human capital formation, the Protestant ethic, economic development, governance, and "dark" outcomes have been identified by scholars:[33]. He wanted Christians to believe the truth, not … Because of corruption in the Catholic Church, some people saw that the way it worked needed to change. [26], The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press. Between 1530 and 1540, Protestantism in Spain was still able to gain followers clandestinely, and in cities such as Seville and Valladolid adherents would secretly meet at private houses to pray and study the Bible. Translated by A. T. Jordan. [62][63] When Henry II took the throne in 1547, the persecution of Protestants grew and special courts for the trial of heretics were also established in the Parlement de Paris. Ten years later, in 1568, the Diet extended this freedom, declaring that "It is not allowed to anybody to intimidate anybody with captivity or expulsion for his religion". The Decline of Latin. The most famous emigration to America was the migration of Puritan separatists from the Anglican Church of England. [74] He was the key figure of the Protestant Church of the Slovene Lands, as he was its founder and its first superintendent. Not only was the Church highly aggressive in seeking out and suppressing heresy, but there was a shortage of Protestant leadership. Having far-reaching political, economic, and social effects, the Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. Besides the Waldensians already present in France, Protestantism also spread in from German lands, where the Protestants were nicknamed Huguenots; this eventually led to decades of civil warfare. Reformers particularly decried the selling of indulgences and offering of forgiveness for sins in exchange for money; the practice of selling religious positions in the church was also frowned upon by those who sought to reform the church. The 17th century saw a complex struggle between Presbyterianism (particularly the Covenanters) and Episcopalianism. Calvinism developed through the Puritan period, following the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, and within Wales' Calvinistic Methodist movement. During the reign of Henry VIII, however,the tide turned in … How Does the 25th Amendment Work — and When Should It Be Enacted. But compared to the bloody and chaotic state of affairs in contemporary France, it was relatively successful, in part because Queen Elizabeth lived so long, until the Puritan Revolution or English Civil War in the seventeenth century. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today. historians believe that the era of the Reformation came to a close when Catholic France allied itself with Protestant states against the Habsburg dynasty. Sigismund, who was also the King of Sweden until deposed, was educated by Jesuits in Sweden before his election as King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Faith Alone. The latter settled mostly in Greater Poland around Leszno. Zwingli was a scholar and preacher who moved to Zurich—the then-leading city state—in 1518, a year after Martin Luther began the Reformation in Germany with his Ninety-five Theses. Greater entrepreneurship among religious minorities in Protestant states. Henry had once been a sincere Catholic and had even authored a book strongly criticizing Luther. A group of reformers felt that it was necessary to change the old practices of the church. They found this in the teaching of Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther. How Did the Protestant Reformation Contribute to the Enlightenment? Greater political autonomy increased the likelihood that Protestantism would be adopted. Luther's influence had already reached Iceland before King Christian's decree. From 1517 onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe.[30][c]. The spread of Protestantism in the country was assisted by its large ethnic German minority, which could understand and translate the writings of Martin Luther. The Protestant Reformation Introduction The Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century is one of the most complex movements in European history since the fall of the Roman Empire. [51] Between 1535 and 1540, under Thomas Cromwell, the policy known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries was put into effect. Different levels of income tax revenue per capita, % of labor force in manufacturing and services, and incomes of male elementary school teachers. Proximity to neighbors who adopted Protestantism increased the likelihood of adopting Protestantism. the early 16th century, a scholar named Erasmus objected to several issues in the Roman Catholic Church, which at the time was the entire Church. [12] The Council of Constance confirmed and strengthened the traditional medieval conception of church and empire. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds and also unfolded differently than in Germany. The military arm of the Protestant princes and cities was the League of Schmalkalden (named for the town where it was founded in 1531), led by Philip landgrave of Hesse (1504-1567). The presence of monasteries made the adoption of Protestantism less likely. The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the previous century and could not prevent schism and the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. Harvard Series in Ukrainian Studies, 2001. b. distance from Rome and Germans looking for strong leader. This conflict divided the Christians of Western Europe into two religious sects: the Protestants and Catholics. The Reformation in the Netherlands, unlike in many other countries, was not initiated by the rulers of the Seventeen Provinces, but instead by multiple popular movements which in turn were bolstered by the arrival of Protestant refugees from other parts of the continent. This "Elizabethan Religious Settlement" largely formed Anglicanism into a distinctive church tradition. Lollardy was suppressed and became an underground movement, so the extent of its influence in the 1520s is difficult to assess. Although Robert Barnes attempted to get Henry VIII to adopt Lutheran theology, he refused to do so in 1538 and burned him at the stake in 1540. The edict condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The desire was for the Church of England to resemble more closely the Protestant churches of Europe, especially Geneva. The various groups had their own juridical systems. They were permitted to sell their immovable property and take their movable property; however, it is still unknown whether they received fair-market value for their lands. [8] Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America.[9]. His wife, Catherine of Aragon, bore him only a single child that survived infancy, Mary. In 1566, at the peak of Belgian Reformation, there were an estimated 300,000 Protestants, or 20% of the Belgian population.[69]. The Deluge, a 20-year period of almost continual warfare, marked the turning point in attitudes. Nowakowska, Natalia. [27][b][18][29] Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. [2] The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith. As it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, and recognised, for some time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support. Because the Protestant Reformation owed so much to the developments of Humanism and the work done by humanists to change how people thought. Songs such as the Lutheran hymns or the Calvinist Psalter became tools for the spread of Protestant ideas and beliefs, as well as identity flags. Elton, Geoffrey R. and Andrew Pettegree, eds. While Lutheranism gained a foothold among the German- and Slovak-speaking populations, Calvinism became widely accepted among ethnic Hungarians. In Switzerland, the teachings of the reformers and especially those of Zwingli and Calvin had a profound effect, despite frequent quarrels between the different branches of the Reformation. ], the majority of Slovaks (~60%) were Lutherans. [68] Protestants in Spain were estimated at between 1000 and 3000, mainly among intellectuals who had seen writings such as those of Erasmus. After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther in Decet Romanum Pontificem and the condemnation of his followers by the edicts of the 1521 Diet of Worms, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various churches in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. Calvinism was popular among Hungarians who inhabited the southwestern parts of the present-day Ukraine. There had long been a strong strain of anti-clericalism. Because of corruption in the Catholic Church, some people saw that the way it worked needed to change. Their refusal to endorse completely all of the ritual directions and formulas of the Book of Common Prayer, and the imposition of its liturgical order by legal force and inspection, sharpened Puritanism into a definite opposition movement. [65] In response to the Edict of Fontainebleau, Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg declared the Edict of Potsdam (October 1685), giving free passage to Huguenot refugees and tax-free status to them for ten years. Originally, the word reformation (from the Latin reformare, “to renew”) suggested the removal of impurities and corruption from church institutions and people, rather than separation from the unified Roman Catholic Church (the word catholic meaning “universal”). Although Protestantism triumphed relatively easily in Scotland, the exact form of Protestantism remained to be determined. The Reformation has been credited as a key factor in the development of the state system. The Reformation also spread widely throughout Europe, starting with Bohemia, in the Czech lands, and, over the next few decades, to other countries. There was also a growing party of reformers who were imbued with the Calvinistic, Lutheran and Zwinglian doctrines then current on the Continent. Those who fled to England were given support by the Church of England. The Protestant Reformation would later serve as the basis for the religious freedom sought by many British Christians who left the nation in search of greater religious freedom in America. [32], The following supply-side factors have been identified as causes of the Reformation:[33], The following demand-side factors have been identified as causes of the Reformation:[33], A 2020 study linked the spread of Protestantism to personal ties to Luther (e.g. The success of the Counter-Reformation on the Continent and the growth of a Puritan party dedicated to further Protestant reform polarized the Elizabethan Age, although it was not until the 1640s that England underwent religious strife comparable to what its neighbors had suffered some generations before. 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